DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
University of Karachi

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PROGRAMS OFFERED



GEOGRAPHY


Morning Program

GIS/RS


Evening Program

B.A./B.Sc. (Hons.)

M.S./M.Phil. leading to Ph.D.

M.A./M.Sc.

Ph.D.

M.Phil. / M.Phil leading to Ph.D.

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Ph.D.

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GEOGRAPHY (MORNING PROGRAM)

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COURSES OFFERED

Undergraduate

Each Course is of 3 Credit Hours

BA/BSc (Hons.) First Year (BS 1st Year)

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First Semester

Geog: 301 Physical Geography: Paper I

Alongwith Physical Geography Paper I, there will be a compulsory course (English or Pakistan Studies or alternative) and two subsidiary courses as chosen by the students at the time of admissions

Second Semester

Geog: 302 Physical Geography: Paper II

Alongwith Physical Geography Paper II, there will be a compulsory course (English or Pakistan Studies or alternative) and two subsidiary courses as chosen by the students at the time of admissions

BA/BSc (Hons.) Second Year (BS 2nd Year)

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Third Semester

Geog: 401 Human Geography - Paper I

Geog: 402 Regional Geography

Alongwith Human Geography Paper I and Regional Geography, there will be a compulsory course (Urdu or Islamiat or alternative) and two subsidiary courses as chosen by the students at the time of admission

Fourth Semester

Geog: 403 Human Geography - Paper II

Geog: 404 Map Work and Field Surveying

Geog: 451 (Subsidiary) Human Geography

Alongwith Human Geography Paper II and Map Work and Field Surveying, there will be a compulsory course (Urdu or Islamiat or alternative) and two subsidiary courses as chosen by the students at the time of admission

Graduate

BA/BSc (Hons.) Third Year (BS 3rd Year or MA/MSc (Previous) 1st Year)

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Fifth Semester

Geog: 503 Geomorphology

Geog: 504 Economic Geography

Geog: 505 Cultural Geography

Geog: 506 Cartography

Any One Specialized Region to be selected

Geog: 521 South Asia

Geog: 522 South West Asia

Geog: 523 Southeast Asia

Geog: 526 North Africa

Geog: 528 North America

Geog: 550 Muslim World

Geog: 551 Geography of Europe

For B.S. Program there will be an additional compulsory course

Sixth Semester

Geog: 508 Climatology

Geog: 509 History and Development of Geographic Thoughts

Geog: 510 Map and Air Photo Analysis

Geog: 511 Quantitative Methods

Geog: 512 Geography of Pakistan

For B.S. Program there will be an additional compulsory course

Each Course is of 3 Credit Hours except Masters Thesis which equals 6 Credits Hours

MA/MSc Final Year (BS 4th Year or MA/MSc (Previous) Final Year)

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Seventh Semester (Compulsory Courses)

Geog: 601 Research Methods

Geog: 611 Field Techniques

For B.S. Program there will be an additional compulsory course

Eighth Semester (Compulsory Courses)

Geog: 612 Field Study

For B.S. Program there will be an additional compulsory course

Seventh and Eighth Semesters (Optional Courses)

Four Courses to be selected for each Semester as per available courses

Geog: 607 Geographic Information Sciences

Geog: 608 Advanced Quantitative Methods

Geog: 609 Remote Sensing

Geog: 610 Political Geography

Geog: 614 Urban Geography

Geog: 615 Central Place System

Geog: 616 Locational Analysis

Geog: 619 Population Geography

Geog: 630 Environmental Management

Geog: 631 Environmental Perception and Behavior

Geog: 633 Natural Hazard Management

Geog: 676 Environmental Impact and Analysis

Geog: 640 Agricultural Geography

Geog: 642 Geography of Manufacturing

Geog: 643 Bio-Geography

Geog: 644 Geography of Transportation

Geog: 646 Oceanography

Geog: 647 Ecology of Natural Resources

Geog: 651 Coastal Morphology

Geog: 652 Applied Climatology

Geog: 653 Plant Geography

Geog: 657 Rural Development & Change

Geog: 658 Migration and Regional Development

Geog: 660 Geography of Recreation & Tourism

Geog: 665 Metropolitan Transportation

Geog: 666 Regional Development Planning

Geog: 667 Fluvial Geomorphology

Geog: 668 Urban Land Use & Planning

Geog: 673 Management of Water Resources

Geog: 674 Disease Ecology and Diffusion of Diseases

Geog: 675 Geography of Health Care

Geog: 683 Geography of Administration

Geog: 684 Geography of Religion

Geog: 686 Electoral Geography

Geog: 687 Prehistoric Culture of Pakistan

Geog: 691 Agro Climatology

Geog: 692 Geography of Settlement

Geog: 693 Rural Settlements and House Types

Geog: 694 Rural Geography

Geog: 695 Globalization and Development

Geog: 696 Arid-Land: Desertification and Management

Geog: 697 Urban Ecology

Geog: 698 Geographies of Gender and Identities

Geog: 699 Advanced Cartography

Masters Thesis:

A 6 Credit Hour Thesis which can be opted in place of two optional Course. If someone opts for Masters Thesis, then only two optional courses need to be selected

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COURSE OUTLINES

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B.A./B.Sc. (Hons.) First Year (B.S. 1st Year)

Geog: 301 Physical Geography: Paper I

Definitions & scope of geography, climate: an introduction to atmosphere, solar and terrestrial radiation, temperature (vertical & horizontal distribution), moisture and atmospheric stability, forms of condensation and precipitation, air pressure and wind circulation, air masses, disturbances, climatic regions, natural vegetation: major types of vegetation, world pattern of natural vegetation, ocean: global oceans & seas, structure of the ocean floor, salinity and its distribution, Sea temperature, oceanic surface and subsurface currents, tides, oceanic deposits.
Lab:
Isotherms, isobars, climographs, meteorological instruments, study of weather maps.
Suggested Readings:
Fellmann, J. D., Getis, A. and Getis, J. 2005. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Tarbuck, J.E and Lutgens, K.F. 2000. Earth Science, 9th Edition, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Christopherson, W.R. 1997. Geosystems: An Introduction to the physical Geography, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
De Blij, H.J. 1995. The Earth: An Introduction to its Physical and Human Geography, 4th Edition, John Wiley: New York.
Lutgens, K.F and Tarbuck, J.E. 1995. The Atmosphere, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Scott, C.R. 1989. Physical Geography, West Publication Company: St. Paul.
Strahler, N. Arthur and Strahler, H. Alan, 1987. Modern Physical Geography, 3rd Edition John Wiley: New York.
McKnight, L.T. 1987. Physical Geography: Landscape Appreciation, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall: New Jersey.

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Geog: 302 Physical Geography: Paper II

The dynamic planet: internal structure of the earth, earthquakes, plate tectonics: continental drift theory, theory of plate tectonics and sea floor spreading, rocks & minerals: rock cycle, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, minerals, volcanism: the nature of volcanic eruption and extruded material, volcanic cones, other volcanic landforms, intrusive igneous activity, mountain building: crustal uplift, rock deformation, mountain types, weathering, erosion & mass wasting, landforms developed by river, glaciers and winds, soil: soil formation, soil types, soil texture, soil profile.
Lab:
Construction of maps and diagrams, identification of rocks and minerals, methods of showing relief: contours (pattern, cross section).
Suggested Readings:
Pluijm, B. A.V. and Marshak, S. 2004. Earth Structure: An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics, 2nd edition, W.W. Norton & Company: New York
Stoppato, C. M. and Bini A. 2003. Deserts: A Firefly Guide: Toronto: Ontario.
Tarbuck , J. E. and Lutgens, K. F. 2000. Earth Science, 9th edition, Prentice Hall: New York.
De Blij, J. H. 1995. The Earth: An Introduction to its Physical and Human Geography, 4th edition, John Wiley: New York.
Pellant, C. and Pellant, H. 1993. Rocks & Minerals, A Dorling Kindersely Book: London
Scott, C. R. 1989. Physical Geography, West Publishing Company: St. Paul.
Hamblin, K. W. 1985. The Earth’s Dynamic Systems, 5th edition, Macmillan Publishing Company & Collier Macmillan Publishers: New York.

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B.A./B.Sc. (Hons.) Second Year (B.S. 2nd Year)

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Geog: 401 Human Geography - Paper I

Meaning and scope of human geography, man and environment relationship, population: population growth (Malthusian theory, demographic transition theory), population distribution, migration, language and religion: classification of languages, world pattern of languages, classification of religion, the principle religion, race: major racial groups and their distribution, settlements: classification of settlements (central place theory), urban and rural settlements (forms, functions and classification), political systems: national political systems (nations, states and nation-states), geographic characterization of states (size, shape, location, cores and capitals), classification of boundaries, international political system: the United Nations and its agencies, regional alliances, laws of the sea and maritime boundaries.
Lab.
Construction of maps and diagrams to show world distribution of population, religions, languages and races, age sex pyramids of different countries, calculation of rates and ratios related to population.
Suggested Readings:
Rubenstein, M. James. 2004. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
De Blij, H. J. 2003. Human Geography: Culture and Society, John Wiley and Sons Incorporated: New York.
Fellmann, J. D., Getis, A. and Getis, J. 2005. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Ahmad, Q. S. 2001. Fundamentals of Human Geography, Royal Book Company: Karachi.
Scott, Foresman and De Blij, J. Harm. 1989. World Geography, Scott, Foresman and Company: Illinois.
Raw, Michael. 1986. Understanding Human Geography: A Practical Approach. Bell and Hymann: London.

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Geog: 402 Regional Geography

Meaning and scope of regional geography, the concept of region in geography, development of regional geography: the concept of natural regions and cultural regions types of regions: uniform regions, functional regions etc., main concepts of region: criteria, categories, characteristics, cores and boundaries, compages and regional consciousness, world regional patterns: South Asia, South West Asia, South East Asia, north Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Nordic Europe, Mediterranean (Southern) Europe, Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States, North America, Middle America, South America, the Pacific Rim, the Pacific realm.
Lab.
Construction of maps and diagrams to show various characteristics of regions, assignment and presentation on regions.
Suggested Readings:
Mihelic, P. Lydia. 2005. World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, W.H. Freeman: New York.
Hobbs, J. Joseph and Salter, L. Christopher. 2005. Essentials of World Regional Geography, Brooks Cole Publishing Company: Minnesota.
De Blij, H.J. and Muller, O. Peter. 2005. Concepts and Regions in Geography, John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated: New York.
De Blij, H. J. 2003. Realms, Regions and Concepts, John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated: New York.
James, P.E. 1974. One World Divided (Second Edition), John Wiley and Sons: New York

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Geog: 403 Human Geography - Paper II

Economic activities: types and world patterns, primary activities: agriculture: origin and types of agriculture, Von Thunen theory of agricultural location, agriculture resources (production and trade of major crops), fishing, lumbering, mining, (major mineral resources and non mineral resources: production and trade of iron ore, copper, gold, coal, petroleum, natural gas), secondary activities: world manufacturing patterns, location factor in industry (Weber’s theory), world production and trade of major industries, pattern of high-tech industries, tertiary activities: transportation (mode of transportation), factors affecting transportation, world transportation pattern, international trade, major trade partners and organization, world trade pattern, energy resources: renewable and nonrenewable resources (thermal power, hydel power, solar power, wind power, nuclear power), economic development: world pattern of economic development, measures of economic development, poverty problem.
Lab.
Construction of maps and diagrams to show economic activities, world distribution of major crops, fishing grounds, major minerals, major industrial goods, trade pattern.
Suggested Readings:
Khan, F. K.. 2005. Commercial Geography, Oxford University Press: Karachi.
Rubenstein, M. James. 2004. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
De Blij, H. J. 2003. Human Geography: Culture and Society, John Wiley and Sons: New York.
Fellmann, J. D., Getis, A. and Getis, J. 2005. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Ahmad, Q. S. 2001. Fundamentals of Human Geography, Royal Book Company: Karachi.
Hartshorn, A. Truman and Alexander, W. John. 1999. Economic Geography. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
Scott, Foresman and De Blij, J. Harm. 1989. World geography. Scott, Foresman and Company: Illinois.
Raw, Michael. 1986. Understanding Human Geography: A Practical Approach. Bell and Hymann: London.

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Geog: 404 Map Work and Field Surveying

Maps and essentials of maps (scale, legend, north arrow, projection, conventional signs) types of maps, scales, types of scales: simple statement, representative fraction (R.F.) scale, graphical scale (linear and diagonal), map projections, types of map projections: cylindrical projections (equal area and Mercator’s), conical projections (one standard parallel, two standard parallel) and zenithal projections (equal area, equidistance, gnomonic, and stereographic), digitization of map features, interpretation of maps: methods of showing relief, interpretation of topographical maps, preparation of maps and graphs using statistical data: pie graph, bar graphs, thematic map: dot maps choropleth maps, isopleths maps, surveying, types of surveying (chain survey, plane table survey, theodolite survey), introduction to global positioning system (G.P.S).
Lab:
Field survey with the help of following instruments: plane table, engineer’s chain, construction of scales, graticules of map projections, thematic maps, pie graph and bar graph.
Suggested Readings:
Wolf, Paul R. and Ghilani, C. 2005. Elementary Surveying: An Introduction to Geomatics, 11th Edition. Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Robinson, Kimberling. 2000. Elements of Cartography, sixth edition, John Wiley: New York.
Campbell, John. 1991. Map Use and Analysis, WMC. Brown Publishers: Iowa
Singh, R.L. 1979. Elements of Practical Geography, Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi.
Monkhouse, F.J. 1976. Maps and Diagrams, Methuen & Company: London.
Singh, R.L. 1964. Map Work and Practical Geography, Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi.
Bygott, J. 1955. An Introduction to Map Work and Practical Geography, University Tutorial Press: London.

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Geog: 451 (Subsidiary) Human Geography

Meaning and scope of human geography, population, race, language and religion, settlements, political system, economic activities, agriculture resources, mineral resources, industry, world pattern of trade, energy resources and economic development.
Lab.
Construction of maps and diagrams to show world distribution of population, religions, languages and races, major crops, fishing grounds, major minerals
Suggested Readings:
Khan, F. K. 2005. Commercial Geography, Oxford University Press: Pakistan
Rubenstein, M. James. 2004. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
De Blij. H. J. 2003. Human Geography: Culture and Society, John Wiley and Sons: New York.
Fellmann, J. D., Getis, A. and Getis, J. 2003. Human Geography, McGraw Hills: New York.
Ahmad, Q. S. 2001. Fundamentals of Human Geography, Royal Book Company: Karachi.
Hartshorn, A. Truman and Alexander, W. John. 1999. Economic Geography, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
Scott, F. and De Blij, H. J. 1989. World Geography, Scott Foresman and Company: Illinois.
Raw, Michael. 1986. Understanding Human Geography: A Practical Approach, Bell and Hymann: London.

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B.A./B.Sc. (Hons.) Third Year (B.S. 3rd Year or M.A./M.Sc. (Previous) 1st Year)

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Geog: 503 Geomorphology

Scope, historical development and fundamental concepts of geomorphology, factors of landforms development: geomorphic processes, geological structure and time, weathering and mass wasting: creation and modification of landforms by weathering and mass wasting, topography of folded and faulted structures, Isostasy, Plate Tectonics, Fluvial Processes and Landforms, Aeolian process and land forms, Glacial Landforms, waves action and coastal land forms, geomorphology of karst region.
Lab
Construction and interpretation of geomorphic maps, geological structure, study of drainage patterns,
Calculation of basin area, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, field study to develop understanding about geomorphic processes and various landforms
Suggested Readings:
Schaetzl, R. J. and Anderson, S. 2005. Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Thornbury,W.E. 2002. Principle of Geomorphology, John Wiley and Sons: New York
Ritter, Kochel and Miller. 2001. Process Geomorphology, John Wiley and Sons: New York
W.K. Hamblin. 2000. The Earth Dynamic Systems, Longman: UK.
Strahler, A.N. 2000. Elements of Physical Geography, John Wiley and Sons: New York
Tarbuck , J. E. and Lutgens, K. F. 2000. Earth Science, 9th edition, Prentice Hall: New York.
W.K. Hamblin. 1998. Introduction to Physical Geology, Longman: UK
Small, R.J. 1989. Geomorphology and Hydrology, Longman: London.
Thorn, C.E. 1987. An Introduction to Theoretical Geomorphology, Unwin Hyman: Boston.
Leopold and Wolman. 1987. Fluvial process in Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York.
McCullagh, P. 1987. Modern concepts in Geomorphology, Harper & Co: London.
Chorley. 1986. Spatial analysis in Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York
Robinson, Harry. 1983. Morphology and landscape, Muller Publication: New York.

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Geog: 504 Economic Geography

Scope and function of economic geography, defining economic geography: defining world economic activities, the classification of economic activities, economic challenge in future, the changing world economy: economic organization and spatial change, spatial divisions of labour, global patterns and trends: economic development means, international patterns of resources and population, international patterns of industry and finance, interpretations of international inequality, the geographical dynamics of the world economy: states and the world economy, market-access and the regional motors of the new world economy, the globalization of production systems: economic challenge in future, economic resources: an overview, economic resources and their distribution, implication of resource development, resource management, industrial locations and industrial development, international trade: world trade pattern, international trade bodies, international trade agreements, international transportation and communication: means and modes of international transportation, world trade routes; sea routes & air routes, marine transportation, transport management.
Lab.
Construction of statistical maps using a variety of methods with help of relevant data.
Suggested Readings
Robert, B.Gibson. 2005. Sustainability Assessment, Earth Scan: London.
Fellmann, J. D., Getis, A. and Getis, J. 2003. Human Geography, McGraw Hills: New York.
Ahmad, Q. S. 2001. Fundamentals of Human Geography, Royal Book Company: Karachi.
Hartshorn, A. Truman and Alexander, W. John, 1999. Economic Geography Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
Hanink, M. 1997. Principle and applications of Economic Geography, Wiley: New York,
Alexander, Gibson. 1997. Economic Geography, Prentice Hall of South East Asia: Singapore.
Knapp, B.J , Ross, S.R. and Mccrae, D.L.R. 1994. The challenge of Economic Environment, Pearson: Delhi.
Henink, D. 1994. The international Economy: A Geographical perspective, John Wiley, New York.

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Geog: 505 Cultural Geography

Examines the concepts of culture as it relates to the geographic landscape. Topics include the built environment, symbolic landscapes, representation of place in film, literature, photography, and music, subaltern geographies, landscapes and cultures of work, and place-situated identity. Course provides an overview of research methods and themes in cultural geography.
Lab
Lab and assignment work related to various cultural regions of the world highlighting important cultural traits. Field trip and field research required.
Suggested Readings
Jordan-Bychkov, Domosh, T., Neumann, R. P. and Price, P. L. 2005. The Human Mosaic, W. H. Freeman: New York.
Angrew, Jhon, David and N. R. Alisdair. 1996. Human Geography: An Essential Anthropology, Blackwell publisher: Boston
Jeckson, Peter. 1989. Map & meaning: An introduction to Cultural Geography, Blackwell publishers: Boston
Spencer, J.E. and Thomas, W.I. 1978. Introducing Cultural Geography, John Wiley and Sons: New York.
Jan.O. M, and Broek, John W. Webb. 1968. The Geography of Mankind, McGraw-Hill: London.

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Geog: 506 Cartography

Meaning and scope of cartography, historical development of cartography: cartography in ancient period, cartography in middle ages, cartography in modern ages, elements of map: projection, scale and generalization, symbolization, categories of maps and their purposes, map projections: basic geodesy, major types of projections, choices of projections, coordinate systems, sources of spatial data: ground survey and positioning (GPS), air photo and remote sensing data census and sampling, cartographic specialties: choroloplth maps, isopleth maps, dot maps, cartograms ergo graph etc, map specifications: Color and pattern use, topography and map lettering, computer cartography: use of GIS in cartography, map digitization, digital image processing.
Lab.
Construction of graticules by using following map projection (mathematical methods) simple cylindrical, cylindrical equal area, mercator’s projection, Gall’s projection Mollweide’s projection, Bonne’s Projection, Polyconic Projection, Conical One Standard Parallel Projection, Conical Two Standard Parallel Projection, zenithal equidistant projection, zenithal equal area projection etc, statistical maps and diagrams: choropleth map, isopleth map, proportion circles, divided circles etc, ergo graph, cartogram, construction of digital maps.
Suggested Readings.
Longley, A. Paul. 2005. Geographical Information system and science, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons: New York.
Ahmad, Q.S. 1968. Simple Map Projection, Publishers United Limited: Lahore.
Khan, J.A. . 2002. Map projection, Rahber Publisher: Karachi.
Robinson, K. 2000. Elements of Cartography, sixth edition, John Wiley: New York.
Dorling, D. and Fairdirm, D. 1997. Ways of Representing the world, Longman: New York.

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Geog: 521 South Asia

Introduction: geographic qualities of south Asia, physiographic regions, the human sequence: population & settlement, Pakistan: historical background, physical environment: relief and drainage, climate, land use patterns: agriculture, industry, transport, minerals and power, population, trade and urbanisation, India: physiography and climate, India’s development: soil and agriculture, mineral resources and industrialization, demographic crisis: India’s dilemma, demographic cycles, urbanization, the east: Bangladesh: historical background, physical environment: relief and drainage, climate, land use patterns: agriculture, industry, transport, minerals and power, population trade and future prospects with special reference to the conditions in the country, Sri Lanka- Island of the South Asia: introduction and location, relief and drainage, climate and natural vegetation, geographical regions, agriculture-types of farming, fishing industry, minerals and industry, population, trade and transport, future prospects, mountainous north: Nepal and Bhutan.
Lab
Collection of latest data and compilation of maps on the topics listed above
Suggested Readings
Mihelic, P. Lydia. 2005. World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, W.H. Freeman.: New York.
Hobbs, J. Joseph and Salter, L. Christopher. 2005. Essentials of World Regional Geography, Brooks
Cole Publishing Company: Minnesota.
De Blij, H.J. and Muller, Peter. O. 1997. Geography, Realms/Regions and concepts, John Wiley and Sons: New York.
Breton, Roland J. L. 1997. Atlas of the Languages and Ethnic communities of South Asia, 2nd edition, AltaMira Press, New York.
Dutt, Ashok, K. 1987. Atlas of South Asia, Westview: Jackson.
James, P. E. 1974. One World Divided, John Wiley and Sons: New York.
Benhart, E. J. and Pomeroy, M. G. 2005. South Asia: Modern World Cultures. Chelsea House Publications: Philadelphia.

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Geog: 522 South West Asia

Introduction: Tri-continental junction, major physical and cultural characteristics, historical background, pattern of people and culture, physical features: landforms, water resources (river/ground water/ oasis), climate: major climatic factors, elements of climate, soils, vegetation and animal life: ecological relationships and soils, major soil pattern, vegetation patterns, and animal life, agriculture: rainfed crop farming, irrigation, riches beneath the earth: petroleum and gas, patterns of resources/production, major oil facilities, OPEC and marketing, other minerals, manufacturing: Patterns of Industry, Regional development problem, settlements: urbanization, selected cities.
Lab
Students are required to prepare assignments/lab work related to various aspects of southwest Asian states.
Suggested Readings
Colbert, C. Held. 2005. Middle East Patterns: Places, Peoples, and Politics, Westview Press: Jackson.
Anuery, H. Wolf, A. 2000. Water in the Middle East: A Geography of peace, Texas press: Austin.
Beaumont, P.G.H. Blake and J.M. Wagstaff. 1998. The Middle East, A geographical study, Halsted Press: New York.
Dawood, A.S. and Karan. 1990. International boundaries of Saudi Arabia, Galaxy: Delhi.
Blake, G.H. and Schofield, R.N. 1987. Boundaries and state territories in the Middle East and North Africa, MENA Press: Cambridge.
Fisher, W.B. 1978. The Middle East, Methun: London.
Kheirabadi, M. 1978. Iranian cities: Formation and development, University of Texas Press: Austin.
Cressay, G.B. 1960. Cross roads: land & life in Southwest Asia, Lippincoft: Chicago.

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Geog: 523 Southeast Asia

Regional geography of Southeast Asia, physical framework, climate, soil and vegetation, population, economic development agriculture and plantation, minerals industries, trade and transport.
Lab Construction of maps, collection of data
Suggested Readings
Weightman, B. A. 2005. Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia. John Wiley & Sons: New York
Hobbs, J. Joseph and Salter, L. Christopher. 2005. Essentials of World Regional Geography, Brooks
Cole Publishing Company: Minnesota.
Mihelic, P. Lydia. 2005. World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, W.H. Freeman: New York.
De Blij, H.J. and Muller, Peter. O. 1997. Geography, Realms/Regions and concepts, John Wiley and Sons: New York.
Scott, Foreman and J. H, De Blij. 1989. World geography Scott, Foresman and Company: Illinois.
James, P.E. 1964. One World Divided: A Geographer Looks at the Modern World, Blasdell publishing Company: Toronto.

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Geog: 526 North Africa

General consideration: The region of North Africa-an introduction, sub divisions of North Africa, The global importance of North Africa, the rise of Islam in North Africa, physical environment: structure and relief, vegetation and soil, land scapes, climate, environmental hazards, human and natural resource: population, agriculture, livestock, oil, gas and minerals, transport, the Suez canal, study of North African countries: Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Sudan.
Lab
Lab work including map work and assignment related to physical and economic aspects of the states of North Africa
Suggested Readings
Hobbs, J. Joseph and Salter, L. Christopher. 2005. Essentials of World Regional Geography, Brooks Cole Publishing Company: Minnesota.
Mihelic, P. Lydia. 2005. World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, W.H. Freeman. New York.
Littell, M. 2002. World Cultures and Geography. McDougal Littell: Boston.
Har- el, Julia. 1992. The Middle East and North Africa: Multicultural Geography. American school publishers: New York.
Jarrett, H.R. 1971. An outline Geography of Africa, Methuen: London.

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Geog: 528 North America

Physiography, climate, vegetation and soil, population, economy and resources, political system.
Lab
Construction of maps and collection of data, assignment.
Suggested Readings
Mihelic, P. Lydia. 2005. World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, W.H. Freeman: New York.
Hobbs, J. Joseph and Salter, L. Christopher. 2005. Essentials of World Regional Geography, Brooks Cole Publishing Company: Minnesota.
De Blij. H. J. 2003. Realms, Regions and Concepts, John Wiley: New York.
James, P. E. 1974. One World Divided (Second Edition), John Wiley: New York.
James, P. E. 1955. American Inventory and Prospects, Association of American Geographers: Washinghton.

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Geog: 550 Muslim World

Muslim world as region, Muslim world in the world perspective, diffusion of Islam and expansion of Muslim rule, physiography of the Muslim world, climate of the Muslim world, population: population growth, population distribution, fertility pattern, human resources and development, political systems, disputes and conflicts: national political system, form of government, impacts of colonialism, regional alliances (OIC, ECO, Arab League etc.), Arab-Israel conflicts in the Muslim world, Islamic radial movements, society and culture: foundation of Islamic culture, monastery culture, cultural differences in the Muslim world.
Lab
Construction of maps to show distribution and pattern of diffusion of Islam, expansion of Muslim rule, physiography, climatic graphs, population distribution, fertility pattern, economic pattern, human resources, colonialism in the Muslim world, major disputes and conflicts.
Suggested Readings
Orens,G. 2003. The Muslim World, H.W. Wilson: New York.
Beaumont, P.G.H. Blake and J.M. Wagstaff. 1998. The Middle East, A geographical study, Halsted Press: New York.
Afzal, Iqbal. 1998. Contemporary Muslim world, Kitabistan Publisher: Lahore.
Savory, R.H. 1997. Introduction to Islamic Civilization, Jall & Company: London.
Blake, G.H. and Schofield, R.N. 1987. Boundaries and State territories in the Middle East and North Africa, MENA Press: Cambridge.

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Geog: 551 Geography of Europe

Political structure of Europe, European and rest of Europe, physical framework, climate, soils and vegetation, population, economic development, agriculture, industries mineral and power resources, trade and transport.
Lab
Construction of maps, collection of data
Suggested Readings
Hobbs, J. Joseph, Salter, L. Christopher. 2005. Essentials of World Regional Geography, Brooks Cole Publishing Company: Minnesota.
Mihelic, P. Lydia. 2005. World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, W.H. Freeman: New York.
De Blij, H.J. 1997. Geography Realms, Regions and Concepts, John Wiley: New York.
James, P.E. 1964. One World Divided: A geographer looks at the modern world, Blaisdell: Toronto.

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Geog: 508 Climatology

Introduction, atmosphere: composition, structure, air temperature (including insolation): general, by latitude, by season, terrestrial heat budget, vertical distribution, horizontal distribution, stability and instability, lapse rate, pressure: vertical distribution, horizontal distribution of pressure at sea level, local winds and oceans currents, general circulation of atmosphere, seasonal winds (monsoon), moisture and precipitation: hydrology cycle, absolute, specific and relative humidity, process of condensation: fog and clouds, instability of atmosphere, tornado, thunderstorm, zonal distribution of precipitation, air masses, fronts, cyclones: tropical and extra tropical, climatic classification Koppen- Geiger, climatic change.
Lab
Climograph of one station, Weather map of Pakistan, copying of data from climatic normal of specific elements for stations and calculation of summer / winter means temperature, plotting of data on maps, drawing of isolines on maps and their interpretation, Development of Wind Rose, Study of Weather Satellite Data and Interpretation of Synoptic maps
Suggested Readings
Thompson, D. R. and Perry, A. 2005. Applied Climatology. 1st Edition. Taylor and Francis: London.
Barry, G. R. 2001. Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology. 1st Edition. Routledge: New York.
Khan, Jamil. A. 1993. The Climate of Pakistan, Rehbar Publishers: Karachi.
Strahler, A.N. 1992. Modern Physical Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Hobbs, E. J. 1980. Applied Climatology: A study of atmospheric resources. Westview Press: San Francisco.
Berry, B.J.L. and Chorley, R. 1971. Atmosphere, Weather, Climate, Methuen: London.
Trewartha, G.T. and Finch, J. 1967. Physical Elements of Geography, McGraw Hills: New York.
Trewartha, G.T. 1954. An Introduction to Climate, McGraw Hill: New York.

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Geog: 509 History and Development of Geographic Thoughts

The Spirit & Scope of Geography: geography as a study of variable character of the earth’s surface (Man-land system), the concept of occupied space, main themes and traditions, historical perspective of development of geographic thought: geography in Ancient period, geography in the Middle ages: Muslim contribution, European contribution, modern geography & its furtherance: founder of modern geography (Humboldt & Ritter), geography after Humboldt & Ritter, specialization and quantitative revolution, tradition in the focus of study: earth science, area study, spatial organization, man land tradition, and cartography, geography as a nomothetic science: facts, model, and paradigms, ideographic verses nomothetic debate, explanation: philosophy (theory & methodology, two routes), geography as a paradigmatic science, geography in Pakistan: development of post graduate research & teaching, research tradition, focus of studies, definitional framework, explanatory themes, research development, future of geographical research.
Lab
Presentation/written assignment on various topics of scope and spirit of Geography, various concepts and historical periods.
Suggested Readings
Aitken, S and G. Valentine. 2006. Approaches to Human Geography, Sage Publications: London.
Qureshi, M.U. 2005. Encyclopedia of Geographical Thoughts, volume 2, Anmol Publications: New Delhi.
Johnston, R.J. 2000. Geography and Geographers, Arnold: London.
Jensen and Arild Holt. 1999. Geography its History and Concepts, Harper & Row: London.
Geoffrey, J. Martin and James, P.E. 1993. All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas, Wiley: New York.
Haggett, P. 1990. The Geographer’s Art, Blackwell: Cambridge.
Harvey, M.E. and Holly, B.P. 1981. Themes in Geographic Thought, Croom Helm: London.

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Geog: 510 Map and Air Photo Analysis

Scope of map and air photo analysis, map interpretation: techniques of map interpretation, interpretation of thematic maps, location on a map: grid and grid references, British method, UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator grid system), bearing interpretation of topographical maps (physical features, drainage pattern etc), (cultural features: urban and rural settlements, transportation, irrigation and agriculture etc.), aerial photography: history of aerial photography, mechanism of aerial photography, geometry of a vertical photograph (photographic centers: principle point, iso-center, nadir), application of aerial image: land forms and drainage, land use planning, natural resources and management, forestry.
Lab
Construction of British and UTM grid system, calculation of bearings, identification of physical and cultural features on the topographical maps, study of relief, drainage pattern, rural settlement types and irrigation on the topographical maps, interpretation of topographical maps of different areas of Pakistan, calculating of scale, nadir, principle point, height and displacement on the aerial photographs, identification of features on air photographs, stereoscopic vision, development of thematic maps and interpretation of air photographs and mosaics.
Suggested Readings
Monmonier, M. Spying with Maps: Surveillance Technologies and the Future of Privacy, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Paine, P. 2002. Aerial photography and image interpretation, John Wiley: New York.
Campbell, J. 2001. Map use and Analysis, Mcgraw Hill: New York.
Robinson H. Arthur and Morrison. 2000. Elements of Cartography, 6th edition, John Willey: New York.
G.C. Dickenson. 1979. Maps and Air photographs, Edward Arnold: London.
Abeedullah, Jan. 1972. Fundamentals of Photo interpretation and Photogrammetry, Forest Institute: Peshawar.
Singh, R.L. 1964. Map Work and Practical Geography, Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi.
Walker, F. 1964. Geography from the Air, Methuen: London.
Dickinson, G. 1969. Maps and Air Photographs, Edward Arnold: London.

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Geog: 511 Quantitative Methods

Scope of quantitative methods in geography, historical background and application of quantitative methods in geography, geographic data: primary, secondary, qualitative and quantitative data, discrete data and continuous variables, measure of central tendency, measure of dispersions, skewness and kurtosis, correlation and regression - hypothesis, spatial analysis: nearest neighbor index (NNI), Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient, calculation of shape index, calculation of accessibility index.
Lab
Frequency table, histogram, frequency polygon, computation of arithmetic mean, mode, median, mean deviation, standard deviation, coefficient of variance, skewness and kurtosis. Linear correlation (product moment and rank correlation), test of hypothesis, linear regression, nearest neighbor index, shape index and accessibility index, digital exercises
Suggested Readings
Fotheringham, A. Stewart, Brunsdon, C. and Martin E. 2000. Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis, Sage Publications: New York.
Burt, J. and Barder, G. 1996. Elementary statistics for Geographers, The Guliford press: New York.
Yeates, Maurice. 1996. An Introduction to Quantitative Analysis in Human Geography, Mc. Grew Hill: New York.
Levin, J. and Fox. 1996. Elementary Statistics in Social Research, Longman: New York.
Saroj, Pal. 1995. Computing Mathematical Techniques in Geography, B.R. Publishing: Delhi.

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Geog: 512 Geography of Pakistan

Physiography of Pakistan, Climate of Pakistan: General weather condition: Temperature of hot season, cold season, Distribution of rainfall, Climatic regions Based on Koppen’s classification and Tronwait’s classification. Soil and vegetation of Pakistan: Major soil groups and soil regions, Major vegetation groups. Population: Growth, Density, Distribution and migration in Pakistan Urban development and urbanization. Economy of Pakistan: Farming techniques, problems and progress, waterlogging and salinity reclaiming projects, food grain growing regions. Cash crops growing regions. Mineral and their uses, power resources, Resource base for the industries, Industrial regions.
Lab
Students are required to prepare different maps to show landforms, climatic conditions, vegetation and soil patterns, population distribution. Agricultural crops, irrigation system transportation and communication networks mineral deposits, Industries and settlement patterns of Pakistan.
Suggested Readings
Khan, F. K. 2006. Pakistan Geography, Economy and People, Oxford University press: Karachi.
K.M. Shamshad. 1988. The Meteorology of Pakistan, Royal Book: Karachi.
Nabi, Hameed and Zahid. 1987. The Agrarian Economy of Pakistan: Oxford University Press, Pakistan.
Khan, A. J. 1993. The climate of Pakistan, 1st Edition, Rehbar Publishers: Karachi.
Kazi, S. Ahmad, F. 1966. A Geography of Pakistan, Karachi Oxford University Press: Karachi.
Ahmad, Uddin, and Kazi. 1969. A Geography of Pakistan, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press: Karachi.
Rahman, M. 2002. Agricuture in Pakistan, Akademiai Kiado.
Johnson, B. L.C. 1979. Pakistan. Heinemann: London.

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M.A./M.Sc. Final Year (B.S. 4th Year or M.A./M.S.c. (Previous) Final Year)

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Geog: 601 Research Methods

This course will include discussions on the way problems and hypotheses are developed and formulated, their nature and definitions, methods of observation and data collection, types of data, types of research and interpretation, various statistical methods, use of SPSS, GIS, etc.
Lab
Application of research techniques and methodology.
Suggested Readings
Clifford, N.J. and Valentine. G. 2003. Key Methods in Geography, Sage Publications: London.
Babble, R. 2003. Survey Research methods, John Wiley: New York.
Skelton, Limb and Dwyer, C. 2001. Cross Cultural Research Qualitative Methodologies for Geographers, Arnold: London.
Nash, D.J. 2000. Doing Independent Overseas Field Work, Journal of Geography in Higher Education 24: 139- 49
Shaw, G. and Wheeler. 1994. Statistical Techniques in Geographical Analysis, David Fulton: London.
Shiaskin,I.M. 1985. Survey Research, Resource publication, Association of American Geographers: Washington.
Kalton. 1983. Introduction to Survey Sampling, Sage publication: London.
Hicks, C.R. 1982. Fundamental Concepts in the Design of Experiments, CBS Publishing: New York.
Dixon. 1978. Sampling methods for Geographical research, Nerwick: New York.
Platt,R. 1968. Field Study, Association of American Geographers: New York.

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Geog: 611 Field Techniques

Meaning and scope of field study, methods of field study: setting of the objectives, search of documentary materials, arrangement of base maps, aerial photographs, satellite imageries, the reconnaissance and formation of field plan, methods of recording direct field observations: fractional code method, unit area method etc., techniques of land use classification: land use classification: land classification of Britain, international geographical union land use classification with special reference of Pakistan, sampling technique and its application in field study: sampling size, sampling type, survey Research: selection of survey mechanism, questionnaire development, survey execution and data analysis, orientation of field instruments: plane table, leveling, GPS, clinometers, field meteorological device, measurement device, altimeter, digital camera etc.
Lab
Case studies and field visits to understand the techniques of field study, orientation of field instruments.
Suggested Readings
Babble, R. 2003. Survey Research methods, John Wiley: New York.
Lounsbury, Aldrich and F. T. 1986. Introduction to Geographic Field Methods and Techniques, Macmillan Publishing Company: Basingstoke Hampshire.
Shiaskin,I.M. 1985. Survey Research, Resource publication, Association of American Geographers: Washington.
Kalton. 1983. Introduction to Survey Sampling, Sage publication: London.
Dixon. 1978. Sampling methods for Geographical research, Nerwick: New York.
Platt,R. 1968. Field Study, Association of American Geographers: New York.

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Geog: 612 Field Study

Study of selected areas guided by teachers, students are required to submit report or their field study for evaluation.
Lab Field report
Suggested Readings
Babble, R. 2003. Survey Research methods, John Wiley: New York.
Shiaskin,I.M. 1985. Survey Research, Resource publication, Association of American Geographers: Washington.
Kalton. 1983. Introduction to Survey Sampling, Sage publication: London.
Dixon, C.J. 1978. Sampling methods for Geographical research, Nerwick: New York.
Platt,R. 1968. Field Study, Association of American Geographers: New York.

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Geog: 607 Geographic Information Sciences

Introduction and overview of GIS: introduction, definitions, components, functional sub-science. Evolution and application of GIS, data models (raster data model, vector data model, attribute data model), data acquisition techniques (data sources, map and data sources in Pakistan, data capturing techniques and procedures), data transformation, visualization of spatial data (layers and projections), map design: (symbols to portray points, lines and volumes, graphic variables, visual hierarchy), data classification graphic approach, mathematical approach spatial relationships (topology), spatial analysis: overlay analysis, spatial analysis, neighborhood functions, network and overlay analysis, buffering, spatial data quality: components of data quality, micro level, components, macro level components, usage components, sources of error, and accuracy.
Lab
The lab, exercises based on hands-on desktop GIS state-of-art software (MapInfo and ArcView) will provide extensive training in data collection, database development and image processing for any real world example, following are the activities involved: introduction to GIS lab. (hardware/software), introduction to GIS software, raster/vector/attribute data display, scanning, digitization, co-ordinate based point mapping, raster/vector conversion, data layer integration and display of different projections, map layout, data classification and thematic mapping, handling with topological errors, overlay analysis, network analysis.
Suggested Readings
Langley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F and Rhind, D. W. 2005. Geographic Information Science: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, ESRI Press: California.
Arctur, D. K. 2004. Designing Geodatabases: Case Studies in GIS Data Modeling, ESRI Press: California.
Aronoff, S. 2004. Geographic Information Sciences: A Management Perspective (fifth edition), WDL Publications: Ottawa. Canada.
Clarke, K. 2004. Getting started with Geographic Information Science (second edition), Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Heywood, I. Cornelius, S. and Carver. S. 2003. An introduction to Geographic Information Science, Second Edition, Addison Wesley: Lognman, New York.
Longley P.A. 2003. Advanced Spatial Analysis, ESRI Press: California.
Jankowski, P. and Nyerges, T. 2001. Geographic Information Sciences for Group Decision Making, Taylor & Francis: London.
McDonald, R. Burrough, P. 2001. Principles of Geographic Information Science, Oxford University Press: London.
Bernhardsen, T. 1999. Geographic Information Sciences: An Introduction, John Wiley & Sons: New York. MIC. 1999. MapInfo Professional; User’s Guide, MapInfo Corporation: New York.
ESRI. 1998. Working with ArcView Spatial Analyst, ESRI Educational Services, ESRI Press: California.
Mitchell, A. 1998. Geographic Information Sciences at Work in the Community Zeroing In, ESRI Press: California.

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Geog: 608 Advanced Quantitative Methods

This course will focus on geographical uses of statistical methods of spatial analysis, using advanced statistical methods. The course deals with spatial data, spatial statistics; analysis of spatial distribution, study of spatial association, regionalization, and problems in the analysis of spatial series. Some training in computer programming will also have to be arranged, Multiple and Partial Correlation, multiple regression analysis, multi-variate analysis, exercises on Minitab and SPSS.
Lab
Application of statistical techniques in geographical research problems
Suggested Readings
Wang, Fahui. 2006. Quantitative Methods and Applications in GIS, Chang Wing Publishing: Hong Kong.
Haining, Robert. 2003. Spatial data analysis: theory & practices, Longman: London.
Peter, R. A. 2001. Statistical methods for geography, Harper & Co: New York.
Shaw, G. and Wheeler, D. 1994. Statistical Techniques in Geographical Analysis, 2nd Edition John Wiley: New York.
Ebdon, D. 1993. Statistics in Geography: A Practical Approach. 2nd Edition, Blackwell Publishing: Cambridge.
Pal, K. S. 1982. Statistical techniques: A basic approach to geography, Tata McGraw-Hill: New Delhi.

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Geog: 609 Remote Sensing

Introduction and historical sketch, electronic spectrum (visible spectrum, atmospheric attenuation), microwave & hyper spectral remote sensing, sensors: imaging systems (RBV, MSS, TM, HRV, HRPT/APT/AVHRR) non imaging systems (RADAR), satellites: types and functions, unmanned satellites (generations, meteorological satellites, earth resources satellites, telecommunication satellites, spy satellites, scientific satellites) manned satellites, space shuttles, platforms, ground receiving stations and reception of data, image processing image interpretation techniques: elements, methods, image measurements: annotation, techniques, classification, applications: hydrology, geology, climatology, environmental application, planning, agriculture/forestry, socio-economic and demographic, land use, GIS and GPS, remote sensing in Pakistan: potential and prospects.
Lab
Introduction to labs, single band image interpretation, false color predictions, false color composite images interpretation, visual interpretation of aerial photographs, various sensors data comparison, thermal infrared image interpretation, introduction to ERDAS imagine, display, geo-linking, zooming, identification of targets, field trip.
Suggested Readings
Campbell and James, B. 2006. Introduction to Remote Sensing, 3rd Edition, The Guilford Press: New York.
Jensen, J. 2006. Remote Sensing of the Environment: An Earth Resources Perspective, Prentice Hall: London.
Lillesand, K. and R. W. 2004. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 5th Edition, John Wiley: New York.
Mather, P. M. 2004. Computer Processing of Remotely Sensed Images, 3rd Edition, John Wiley: New York.
Gibson, P.J. 2000. Introductory Remote Sensing: Principles and Concepts, Routledge: London.
Sabins, F.F. 1996. Remote Sensing: Principles and Interpretation, 3rd Edition, W. H. Freeman & Co: New York.

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Geog: 610 Political Geography

Scope and Status of Political Geography, definition: focus on political area, state as the focus of study, main approaches, development of political geography, political-geographic structure of a state, external structure, internal structure, functioning of integrative & divisive forces, measuring the functional effectiveness, geopolitical perspective of the world, heartland, Rimland: concepts and application, supra-national organizations, role of United Nations in world politics, a case study of Pakistan, boundaries, capital, the hierarchy of administrative units.
Lab
Study of various attributes of selected states of the world with quantitative cartographer application.
Suggested Readings
Taylor, and P.J. Flint. 2004. Political Geography: World Economy, Nation-State and Locality Pearson: Delhi.
Agnew, J. Mitchell, K., and Toal. 2002. A Companion to Political Geography, Blackwell: Oxford.
Grant R. and Nijman, J. 2002. Globalization and the Margins. Palgrave: London.
Agnew, J. 1997. Political Geography: A Reader, Arnold: London.
Painter, J. Politics. 1995. Geography and Political Geography, Arnold: London.
Taylor, P.J. 1993. Political Geography of the Twentieth Century, Belhaver: London.
Raynolds, D. and Knight, D. 1989. Political Geography, Geography in America: Merril, Columbus 582 – 618
Munir, R. 1981. Modern Political Geography: Macmillan: London.
Kasperson, R.E. and Minghi. 1969. The Structure of Political Geography: Aldone, Chaicago.
Prescott, J.R.V. 1965. The Geography of Frontiers and Boundaries, Hutchinson: London.

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Geog: 614 Urban Geography

Introduction: Definition; explanation of terms used: urban area, urban centre town, city, metropolis and megalopolis, two types of urban centres: municipal town/city and cantonment. Location: with respect to latitude and longitude; with respect to major physical or cultural features; site and situation. Function: Economic base concept: basic and non-basic functions, their calculation; concept of economic health, central place theory: Christaller’s formulation; subsequent extension, classification of cities based on function: Harris & Ullman’s three types of cities: Schemes of classification: Harris; multivariate classification: Moser & Scot: British towns; Qazi S. Ahmad Indian cities. Form/Internal Structure, Classical theories: Burgess: Concentric Zone theory, Homer Hoyt: Sector/Wedge hypothesis, Harris & Ullman: Multiple Nuclei concept, Internal Structure of Non-western cities. Central Business district, Suburbs; New towns scheme, Slums and blighted areas; Katchi Abadies. Urban Population: Clark’s model: density-distance relationship; city-size distribution: primate, intermediate, rank-size; ethnic distribution. Urban Transportation: Modes of transportation: their relative merits, traffic: peak hour congestion, parking: off-street parking; multi-storied parking. Infrastructural facilities: flyovers, pedestrian bridges, subways, elevated railroads. Urban Planning: Theoretical framework; basic surveys, urban renewal, relocation of land uses, urban redevelopment.
Lab
Practical application of the subject on Karachi.
Suggested Readings
Hall, T. 2006. Urban Geography, 3rd Edition, Routledge: New York.
Fellmann, D. F. Gatis, and A. Gatis, J. 2005. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Dave, H. K., James, W. O. and Holloway, S. 2004. Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Kaplan, Wheeler, O.J. and Holloway, S. 2003. Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Hartshorne, A. T. and Alexander, W. J. 1988. Economic Geography, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
David, Clark. 1982. Urban Geography, Croom Helem: London.
Cartar, Harold. 1981. The Study of Urban Geography, Edward Arnold: London.
Ray, M. 1979. Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Murphy, Raymond. 1966. The American city: An urban geography, McGrow Hill: New York.
Mayar, H. and Kohn. 1959. Readings in urban geography, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

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Geog: 615 Central Place System

Central place theory, significance and implications; urban hierarchies; intra-urban retail location; models of consumer behaviour, application of central place theory in settlements, system of central places; spatial interaction and spatial organization.
Lab Analysis of central place theory, Comparative field visits of Urban and Rural Central places
Suggested Readings
Fellmann, D. F. Gatis and A. Gatis, J. 2005. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Hartshorne, A. T. and Alexander, W. J. 1988. Economic Geography, Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Clark, David. 1982. Urban Geography, Croom Helem: London.
Cartar, Harold. 1981. The Study of Urban Geography, Edward Arnod: London.
Northern, M. 1979. Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Murphy, Raymond. 1966. The American city: An urban geography, McGraw Hill: New York.
Mayar, H. and Kohn. 1959. Readings in urban geography, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Smailes, A.E. 1958. Geography of Town, Hutchinson University: London.

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Geog: 616 Locational Analysis

Geographic approach of locational analysis, location and land use decision, agricultural locational theories and their applications, industrial location theories, location decision in urban space, retail location, residential and industrial location, locational analysis of transport network and routes, locational analysis of settlements, methods of locational analysis: location quotient, nearest neighbour analysis, surface analysis, (land value surface, population density surface etc.), Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve, gravity and potential models etc.
Lab
Computation and analysis of agricultural location theory, industrial location theory, potential model, gravity model, nearest neighbour, Gini coefficient etc. case studies and application of land use models and location theories.
Suggested Readings
Charles, K. and Hall, S. 2004. Locational Models and Theories, Harper & Co: London.
Healey, M and Ilbery. 1992. Location and Change, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Peter, L. and Dicken.1990. Location in Space: a theoretical approach, Harper & Row: New York.
Haggett, P. 1977. Locational Analysis in Human Geography, Edward Arnold publishing: London.
Chorley, R. Haggett P. 1976. Models in Geography, Methuen & Co: London.

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Geog: 619 Population Geography

Population geography: its nature and scope, types and problems of data sources of data, fertility: measures, historical trend, pattern is develops and developing world, mortality: measures, pattern is developed and developing world, life table, population growth, pattern theories, problems, world population, distribution and resources, pattern of population composition age structure, sex combination economic composition marital status, measures of population distribution world population distribution and resources, migration, internal & international, population projection.
Lab
Quantitative analysis of population data, geographical presentation of preparation of maps based on population data, demographic survey and compilation of field survey report of any locality.
Suggested Readings
Peters, L. G. and Larkin, P. R. 2005. Population Geography, 8th Edition, Kendall, Hunt Publishing Company: Lowa.
Raw, M. 1986. Understanding Human Geography: A Practical approach, Bell & Hyman: London.
Jones, R. H. 1981. A Population Geography, Harpar & Row: London.
Hammond, W. C. 1979. Elements of Human Geography, 2nd Edition, Bell & Hayman: London.
Clarke, I. J. 1965. Population Geography, Pergamon press: London.

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Geog: 630 Environmental Management

Concept of environmental management, environment and man (ecosystem, human interaction with the environment), population explosion, the human impact on the environment, resources, endangered earth, environmental hazards (classification, nature and dimension, parameters for human response, risk assessment and perception, adjustment to hazards), geo physical hazards, biological Hazards: AIDS, malaria, technological hazards: geometry and geography (air pollution, ozone layer depletion, green house effect, water pollution, marine pollution, pesticides Problem, water logging and salinity, desertification), environment impact statement, national and individual action, natural extremes and social resilience, a survey of Pakistan's environmental hazards: natural hazards, technological hazards, national conservation strategy, Pakistan environment act. Environmental ethics and hope: Islamic environmental ethics.
Lab
Field visits of urban and rural areas to identify local environmental problems and documentation of these problems through SRS data
Suggested Readings
Lackey, R.T. 2005. Economic growth and salmon recovery: an irreconcilable conflict, Fisheries 30(3): 30-32.
Stokstad, E. 2005. Taking the pulse of Earth’s life support systems, Science 308, 41 – 43.
Slocombe, S. 2004. Applying an Ecosystem Approach’ in B. Mitchell: Resource and Environmental Management in Canada: Addressing Conflict and Uncertainty, 3rd edition, Oxford University press: Toronto , pages 420 - 441
McRae, D. M. and Pearse, P. H. 2004. Treaties and transition: towards a sustainable fishery on Canada's Pacific Coast, Federal-Provincial Joint Task Group Report: 58pp.
Pauly, D., V. Christensen, S. Guénette, T. Pritcher, U. Sumaila, C. Walters, R. Watson, D. Zeller. 2002. Towards Sustainability in World Fisheries, Nature 418, 8 August, pages 689 – 695.
Gleick, P. 2000. The Changing Water Paradigm: A look at twenty-first century water resources development, Water International 25(1), 127 – 138
Guha, R. 2000. Environmentalism: A global history, Longman: New York, pp. 69 – 97
Freedman, B. 1998. Environmental Science: A Canadian perspective, Scarborough Prentice Hall: Canada, pp. 182 – 199
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R. and Walters, C. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: Peter Science 260: 36.
Arms, Karen. 1991. Envernmental Science, Asunders College Publishing: Philadelphia.
Bennet, Robert and Estall, Robert. 1991. Global Change and Challenge: Geogrpahy for the 1990s, Routledge: London.
Kjellstrom, Tord. 1988. Health Hazards of the Environment: Measuring the Harm, World Health, pp. 2-5.
Beg, M. and Ali, Arshad. 1987. Air Pollution in Karachi, Pakistan Journal of Science and Industrial Research, Vol, 30, No. 1, pp. 60-71.
Goude, Andrew. 1986. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment, Basil Blackwell: Oxford.
Burton, Ian, Robert W. Kates and Gilbert F, White. 1978. The Environment as Hazard, Oxford University Press: New York.
Greenburg, M.R. 1978. Environmental Impact Statement, Resource Paper No. 78-3, Association of American Geographers: USA.

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Geog: 631 Environmental Perception and Behavior

Introduction; Human sensory perception, Proxemic Studies: Personal and Interpersonal Space Human development, space and place: Children's geographies, Topophilia: Love of Place, Love of Home, Maps In Minds: Cognitive maps, Way-finding and Mental Maps, Experiencing Urban Environments , Hazard Perception: The Urban Environment, Hazard Perception: Adjustment & Risk Perception, Spatial Variations of Environmental attitudes in Pakistan, “Green” Values, Consumerism and the Environment, Preservation, Restoration, Environmental Values and The Rest of the World: Paradigm Shift.
Lab
Focus Presentations, Questionnaire based perception survey.
Suggested Readings
Mira, R. Garcia. 2006. Environmental Perception and Cognitive Maps, Psychology Press: New York.
Anthony. 2004. Hope and Despair: How Perceptions of he future shape Human Behavior, The John Hopkins University Press: Washington.
Schwartz, Robert. 2003. Perception, Blackwell Publication: Oxford.
Saarinen, F.T. and Sell, L. James. 1984. Environmental Perception and Behavior: An Inventory and Prospect, The University of Chicago: Chicago.
Ervin, H. Zube. 1984. Environment Evaluation: Perception and public policy, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Ittelson, H. William. 1973. Environment and Cognition, Seminar Press: New York.
Whyte, T.V. A. 1977.Guidelines for Field Studies in Environmental Perception, United nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: Paris.
Saarinen, F.Thomas. 1969. Environmental Planning: Perception and Behavior. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston.

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Geog: 633 Natural Hazard Management

Natural Hazard Mitigation: Comprehensive Emergency Management: Breaking the Cycle, The four phases of comprehensive emergency management and the distinguishing characteristics of each, The concepts of mitigation and recovery as it relates to natural hazardous events, The inter-relationships between mitigation and recovery. Hazard and Risk Analysis: The difference between risk and vulnerability and their relationship, The concept of acceptable risk and the factors that influence this determination, The role and identifying methods of risk communication in hazard mitigation, Identify potential biases in risk perception. Hazard Mitigation; Case Study: The concept of hazard mitigation, Identify the common features of mitigation strategies and some specific approaches for natural hazards mitigation, The potential conflicts in mitigation strategies related to different natural hazards, The process for developing a hazard mitigation plan. Disaster Recover: Disaster Recovery Planning: The concept of disaster recovery as related to natural hazards disasters, The basis for integrating mitigation and recovery planning processes, Political and Community Power Influences, Identity at least two political and/or community factors that could affect the mitigation and recovery processes, Identity two means whereby political and community power influences can be taken into account in developing mitigation and recovery strategies. Presidential Disaster Declaration: The Presidential Disaster Declaration process, Legal Issues, Legal factors that affect local mitigation and recovery decisions, Examples of a successful disaster recovery effort that incorporates local mitigation strategies with recovery goals.
Lab
Identification of meteorological hazards on satellite data, synoptic maps, field visit to the Affected areas, Social and perception surveys.
Suggested Readings
Ansal and Atilla. 2004. Recent Advances in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering and Microzonation, Springer: New York.
Louis, K. Comfort. 1988. Managing Disasters, Duke University Press: Durham.
Petak, William J. and Atkinsson, Arthur A. 1982. Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Public Policy: Expecting the unexpected, Springer-Veriag: New York.
James W. Morentz, Hugh C. Russell, and Judith A. Kelly. 1982. Practical Mitigation: Strategies for Managing Disaster Prevention and Reduction, Research Alternatives: Maryland.
Harold, D. Foster. 1980. Disaster Planning: Preservation of Life and Property, Springer: New York.

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Geog: 676 Environmental Impact and Analysis

Introduction to environmental impact assessment (EIA): EIA procedures and methods, Methods of Environment components, Public involvement in EIA, Initial Examination (IE), Environmental audit, Strategic environmental assessment, Impacts upon the physical environment: water, air and land, Assessment of ecological impacts, Socio-economic impacts, Assessment of impacts on humans: Cumulative effects assessment (CEA), and consideration of alternatives in EIA and EIS review. Environmental impact assessment, EIA in Pakistan, EPA guidelines for various projects, EIA Tools in Geography.
Lab
Visit of on going projects and recording of Environmental impacts in pre, during and post phases of the projects.
Suggested Readings
Wood, C. 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Comparative Review, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall: New Jersey
Lawrence P. D. 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment: Practical Solutions to Recurrent Problems, John Wiley: New York.
Schwartz, Robert. 2003. Perception, Blackwell Publication: Oxford.
Morris, Peter and Therival, Riki. 2001. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment, Spon Press: London.
Marriott, B. B. 1997. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Practical Guide, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill: New York.
Bennett, Robert and Estall, Robert. 1991. Global Change and Challenge: Geography for the 1990, Routledge: London.
Ervin, H. Zube. 1984. Environment Evaluation: Perception and public policy, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Saarinen, F.Thomas. 1969. Environmental Planning: Perception and Behavior. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston.

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Geog: 640 Agricultural Geography

Scope of agricultural geography, origin and diffusion of agricultural geography (theories), determinants of agricultural patterns (physical and non-physical), location of agriculture land use (land use models), crop combination regions, agricultural regions, land classification.
Lab
Quantitative analysis of agricultural data, graphical presentation and preparation of maps based on agricultural data, field survey and compilation of field survey report.
Suggested Readings
Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S. 2004. Agricultural Geography, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Dehli.
Farooqee, R. 1999. Strategic Reforms for Agricultural Growth in Pakistan, The World Bank Washington D.C.
Grigg, B. D, March. 1995. An Introduction to Agricultural Geography, 2nd edition, Routledge: London.
James, P.E. 1954. American Geography: Inventory and Prospects, Syracuse University Press: New York.
Grigg, David. 1995. Introduction to agricultural geography, 2nd Edition, Routledge: London.
Hans. 1983. Farming Systems in the Tropics, Ruthenberg Publisher, Oxford University Press: USA.

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Geog: 642 Geography of Manufacturing

Definition and classification of manufacturing aspects and components of manufacturing geography, evolution of manufacturing activity with reference to socio-political and economic environment, factors of industrial location, approaches to the study of industrial location input factors, land, capital, raw material, energy, labour, enterprise, market, the interaction of supply and demand, input and output market, Pricing policies, infrastructure, transport modes and freight rate structures, social infrastructure, agglomeration and de-agglomeration, public policy and planning, locational interdependence, industrial location theories, early geographical approaches, Alfred Weber model, Edgar Hoover, august Losch, Walter Isard, evolution of industrial areas, circular cumulative causation, Industrial area’s ageing processes, types of industrial regions, decline and rejuvenation of industrial regions, industrial economy: an international perspective, regional implications of industrial locations, regional development, impact on other economic activities, industries and environment, regional industrial policies, objectives of regional industrial policies, nature of government interventions, impact of industrial and non-industrial government policies on regional industrial development, geographical analysis of selected industries of Pakistan, cotton textile industry, Iron and steel industry, sugar industry, cement industry, methods and techniques in industrial analysis.
Lab
Collection and analysis of industrial data, visit of industries.
Suggested Readings
Hartshorne, A. Truman and Alexander, J.W. 1996. Economic Geography, Prentice-Hall: New York.
Altaf, Z. 1988. Entrepreneurship in the third world and uncertainty in industry in Pakistan, Croom Helm: London.
Keith, Champman and Walker, David. 1987. Industrial Location; Principles and policies, Basil Blackwell: Oxford University press: New York.
Hewing, J.D. 1977. Regional industrial Analysis and Development, Methuen and Co: London.
Smith, D. M. 1971. Industrial Location: An Economic Geographical analysis, John Wiley: New York.
Alexanderson, Gunnar. 1967. Geography of Manufacturing, Prentice-Hall: New York.
Miller, E. Willard. 1962. Geography of Manufacturing, Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs.

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Geog: 643 Bio-Geography

Scope of Biogeography, Terrestrial Biomes: tropical rainforest, tropical savanas, deserts, temperate grasslands, boreal forests, tudna, Fresh water Biomes: rivers, lakes, ponds, Marine Biomes: coastal biomes, continental shelf biome, deep sea ecosystem, urban ecosystem.
Lab
Study of terrestrial, marine and freshwater biomes, case studies and field study.
Suggested Readings
Woodward, Susan. 2003. Biomes of Earth, Greenwood Press: London.
Mac, Mahon. 2000. Warm Deserts, Hague Publication, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Tivy, Joy. 1990. Agricultural Ecology, Longman: Eytal.
Sukopp. 1983. Urban environments and vegetation, Junk Publication: London.

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Geog: 644 Geography of Transportation

Introduction, framework for the study of transport systems, routes & networks, networks as graphs, network connectivity, network accessibility, density & shape of networks, network density, network shape, prediction of networks, location of routes & networks, minimum-distance networks, deviation from straight line paths, routes & political boundaries, development of transport networks, transport development, improved transport facilition, communication improvements, cost – space & time – space convergence, transport costs, general properties of transport costs, terminal & line-haul costs, curvilinear & line-haul costs, carrier competition, stepped freight rates, commodity variations in transport, loading and packaging costs, damage & risk variation, shipment size, regularity of movement, special equipment & services, elasticity of demand, freight rate variation & traffic characteristics, intra – city transportation & transport planning, transportation in Pakistan.
Lab
Preparation of transport maps of Pakistan/world with remote sensing & GIS Techniques, computing measures of connectivity by different methods, computing network accessibility, route sinuosity etc., with special reference to Karachi/Pakistan. Field work, submission of assignment and presentation.
Suggested Readings
David A. H. 2004. Hand Book of Transport Geography & Spatial Systems; Elsevier: London.
Hoyle, B. and Richard, K. 2004. Modern transport geography, John Wiley: New York.
Gary, L, Gaile and Cort, J. W.(Eds) 2003. Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century, Oxford University Press: London.
Miller, H.J. and Shaw, S.A. 2001. Geographic Information Systems for Transportation: Principles & Applications, Oxford University Press: London.
Rodney, Tolley and Brian, T. 1995. Transport System, Policy & Planning, Longman: London.
Knapp, B. 1992. Systematic Geography, Collins Educational: London.
Lolite, H.P. and Senior, M.L. 1989. Transport Geography, Longman: London.
Robinson, H. 1989. Geography for Business Studies McDonald & Evans: London.
Robinson, H. & Bainford, C.G. 1978. Transport Geography, Mc.Dnald & Evans: London.
Kansky, K.J. 1963. Structure of Transportation Networks, Relationship between Network Geometry & Regional Characteristics. Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 84: Chicago: Illinois.
James E. P and Jones, F. C. (Eds). 1954. American Geography, Inventory & Prospects, Syracruse University Press: New York.

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Geog: 646 Oceanography

Scope of oceanography, the origin of ocean basin and structure of ocean floor: the geological formation of ocean floor, mid oceanic ridges and sea floor spreading, sea level changes, marine sedimentation: classification of marine sediments, shelf and deep sea sedimentation and Sratigraphy, marine ecology: ocean habitats, the properties of sea water, wind and sea circulation, waves in the ocean, coastal habitats, origin of estuary, lagoon, salt marshes, mangrove swamps, coral reefs, biology of the continental shelf and open sea, the oceanic resources: law of the sea, exclusive economic zones, mineral resources, fisheries etc., marine pollution, ocean dredging and mining.
Lab
Field visits of creeks, estuaries etc. and case studies related to transportation and sedimentation of Indus River sediments, marine ecology, marine resources, marine fishing, marine pollution, mangroves etc.
Suggested Readings
Paul, Pinet. 2005. Oceanography, Jones and Bartlett publisher: Boston.
Pirazzoli, A. P. 1996. Sea-Level Changes: The Last 20,000 Years, John Wiley: New York.
Sunamura, T. 1992. Geomorphology of Rocky Coasts, John Wiley: New York.
Anderson, R. 1986. Marine Geology, John Wiley: New York.
Tolmazin, D. 1985. Elements of Dynamic Oceanography, Winchester: UK
Barnes. 1982. An Introduction to Marine Ecology, Blackwell: Boston.

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Geog: 647 Ecology of Natural Resources

Importance and scope of the study of ecology of natural resources, resources geography: studies of natural resources by geographers, environment, natural resources and economic development, human impact on natural resources and their exploitation, environmentalist movement, sustainable development, ecological approach to management and development of natural resources, ecosystems, stability and resilience of ecosystems, classification of world ecosystems based on stability and resilience, planning process for sustainable development of natural resources, natural resource inventory, accounting system (NRAS), ecosystem modelling, system planning, environmental impact assessment (EIA), forest resources, exploitation, deforestation and management issues, grasslands, rangeland management, degradation control, water and soil resources development, prevention of soil depletion, development and conservation issues.
Lab
Case studies, field visits.
Suggested Readings
Robert, L. S. and Thomas, M. Smith. 2005. Elements of ecology, Benjamin Cummings: New Jersey.
Primack, B. R. 1998. Essentials of Conservation Biology, Sinauer Stanford University, Stanford.
Strahler, N. Arthur and Strahler, A. H. 1987. Modern Physical Geography, 3rd Edition, John Wiley: New York.
John, A. Dawson and John C. Doornkamp. ,1973. Evaluating the human environment, Edward Arnold: London

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Geog: 651 Coastal Morphology

Study of shoreline, morphology of coastal areas, classification of coasts, evolution, effects of change of sea level. Tide and its effects on the coast, Human activities and Morphological changes Waves and shallow water transformation, Infragravity, Far infragravity waves, Near shore currents, Sediment transport processes and bed form, Beach and barrier, Morphodynamics, Muddy coast, Deltas & Estuaries.
Lab
Study of coastal features of Pakistan.
Suggested Readings
Anthony, N. and Procopio. 2006. An evaluation of landscapes, hydrology, and channel morphology of coastal plain drainages with different cranberry agriculture histories, ProQuest Information and Learning: Ann Arbor.
Ritter, Kochel and Miller. 2002. Process Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York.
Andrew, Miller. 1999. Varieties of Fluvial forms, John Wiley: New York
Pirazzoli, A. P. 1996. Sea-Level Changes: The Last 20,000 Years, John Wiley: New York.
Sunamura, T. 1992. Geomorphology of Rocky Coasts, John Wiley: New York.
Nordstrom, F. K. Psuty, N. and Carter, B. 1991. Coastal Dunes: Form and Process, John Wiley: New York.
Thornbury, W.E. 1991. Principles of Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York.
Guilcher, A. 1988. Coral Reef Geomorphology: Coastal Morphology and Research John Wiley: New York.

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Geog: 652 Applied Climatology

Climatic classification: leads to regional pattern of natural vegetation human activities civilization, climatic impact (natural): weathering, soil formation, erosion, floods, drought, brushfires, Climate & Water resources: water cycle, Rainfall, melting of ice, rivers, annual water budget of a place, Water as: Soil re-charge (flood), as devastator (flood), miss-use leeching salinity & Water logging, Rainfall and river discharge studies: flood forecasting (catchments area and runoff, soil moisture level), Agricultural climatology: Rainfall, temperature, wind, sunshine, Ago-climatic regions of Pakistan crop climate calendar, Agricultural hazard, Climate and human living (comfort, discomfort) climate & housing, Air conditioning, Climate and public safety: Air-pollution, dust storm, thunderstorm, lightening hazards, Transport-fog, road icing, mudslides, snow avalanche, Aviation hazard, brush fires, cyclonic storm, tornados, swamps, breeding of mosquitoes, climate & Human activities relating to long term changes in climate, Carbon dioxide & ozone depletion leading to climate change, deforestation, over irrigation, desertification, Climate of cities: heat islands, areas of maximization of rainfall, climate and renewable energy resources.
Lab
Weather map interpretation related to climate, Climo-graphs, climate classification of a station comfort index by month of a climatic station, discuss your house design from climate view/out relate crops of a district (Rabi & Kharif) of Sindh/Punjab, Study climate normal of 1911-40, 1931-60, 1961-90 to search for climatic change if any over Pakistan.
Suggested Readings
Thompson, D. R. and Perry, A. 2005. Applied Climatology, 1st Edition, Taylor and Francis: London.
Barry, G. R. 2001. Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology, 1st Edition, Routledge: New York.
Strahler, A.N. 1992. Modern Physical Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Hobbs, E. J. 1980. Applied Climatology: A study of atmospheric resources, Westview Press: San Francisco.
Berry, B.J.L. and Chorley, R. 1971. Atmosphere, Weather, Climate, Methuen: London.
Trewartha, G.T. and Finch, J. 1967. Physical Elements of Geography, McGraw Hill: New York.
Trewartha, G.T. 1954. An Introduction to Climate, McGraw Hill: New York.

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Geog: 653 Plant Geography

Scope of plant geography, plant habitat, plant dispersal and migration, tropical rainforests, tropical dry forests, mangrove, desert vegetation, temperate grasslands, temperate broadleaf forests, boreal forests, tundra, Distribution of Plant families, Flora of Pakistan (Main regions) and Flora of Karachi
Lab
Study of various groups of plants and their dispersal, field visits and case studies.
Suggested Readings
Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S. 2004. Agricultural Geography, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Dehli.
Woodward, Susan. 2003. Biomes of Earth, Greenwood Press: London.
Farooqee, R. 1999. Strategic Reforms for Agricultural Growth in Pakistan, The World Bank Washington D.C.
Hans, Ruthenberg. 1983. Farming Systems in the Tropics, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Gleason and Cronquist. 1968. The Natural Geography of Plants, Colombia University Press: Colombia.
Cain, A. S. 1944. Foundation of Plant Geography: London.

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Geog: 657 Rural Development & Change

Rural geography, nature and scope; approaches of study, resource-based economic approach, community-oriented social relations approach, land use based spatial approach, development as agent of changer, evolution in rural development practices, past and current emphases, institutional framework and mechanism for development of rural areas and communities, in liquated rural development, rural population, characteristics of rural population, occupational structure, social differentiation, rural settlements, types of rural settlements, morphological and internal patterns of rural settlements, relationship of rural settlements with resources use, nature and delivery of services to rural communities, rural problems, issues in rural development, planning and mechanism for rural development, community, oriented development and the role of government and non-governmental organizations.
Lab
Field survey of different categories of rural community and exercises involving analysis of data.
Suggested Readings
Woods, Michael. 2005. Rural Geography, Sage publication: London.
Delad, B. Clayton, Daut, David and Dubois, O. 2003. Rural Planning in Developing Countries: Supporting natural resources management and sustainable livelihoods, Earth scan publications limited: London.
Butler, R. 1998. Rural recreation and tourism, Longman: London.
Sulramaniam, S.R. 1987. Readings in integated rural development, IBH Publising co, pvt. ltd.: New Delhi.
Devi, Laxmi. 1996. Encyclopedia of Rural Development, policies, method, stalequies in rural development, institute of sustainable development: luchknow.
Pacione and Michael. 1984. Rural Geography: Integrated rural development, Harper & Raw Ltd.: London.
Clout, H.D. 1972. Rural Geography, Oxford University Press : Oxford.

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Geog: 658 Migration and Regional Development

Defining and conceptualizing migration and its types and reasons, levels and trends of migration theories of migration, impact of migration on regional development and relationship between human mobility and change in global economy, migration and poverty, mobility and health, migration and gender, migration policies before and past 9/11, Pakistan’s migration policy
Lab
Quantitative analysis of migration data, field work and report presentation
Suggested Readings
Kothari, Uma. 2002. Migration and chain Poverty, Institute of Development Policy and Management. University of Manchester: Manchester.
Martin, P. and J. Widgrn. 2002. Population Bulletin, Vol. 57, No.1. Population Reference Bureau: Washington D.C.
Hammond, W. C. 1979. Elements of Human Geography, 2nd Edition, Bell & Hayman: London.
Davies, Suzanne and Pandit, Kavita. 1999. Migration and Restructuring in the USA: A Geographic Perspective, Rowman and Littlefield: Colorado.

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Geog: 660 Geography of Recreation & Tourism

Introduction: Development of geography of recreation & tourism, significance of geography of recreation & tourism, planning and policy for recreation and tourism, the demand for recreation: measurement of demand, history of recreation, perception in outdoor recreation: theories, the history of holiday making, economics of recreation, recreation as a social force, tourism: its motivation & impact, outdoor recreation & the environment, basic components of tourism, planning for tourism, marketing of tourism, transport and tourism, changing trends in world tourism, tourism in Pakistan – problems & prospects.
Lab Preparation of tourist guide maps of Pakistan/world with remote sensing & GIS techniques, field work based on questionnaire survey of different places of tourist interest in Sindh/Karachi & submission of assignment and presentation, questionnaire survey of recreational areas in Karachi; submission of assignment & presentation.
Suggested Readings
C.M. Hall & S.T. 2004. Tourism in S. Asia, Routledge: New York.
Jorgen, O. Baerenholdt, Haldrug, M. Larsen, J. And Urry, J. 2004. Performing Tourist Places, Ashgate Publicaton Co: London.
David, A. Fennel. 2004. Ecotourism: An Introduction, Rohtledge: New York.
Hall, C.M. and Page, S.J. 2003. The Geography of Tourism and Recreation, Routledge: New York.
Lloyd, Hudman, Richard, H. and Tacksan. 2003. Geography of Travel & Tourism, Deelmar: London.
Patrick, Lavery. 1999. Introduction to Travel & Tourism Recreational Geography, Longman: New York.
Wahab, Salah and Pigram, J. I. 1997. Tourism Development & Growth, Routledge: New York.
Cooper, C.P. 1989. Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Pinter Publish: New York.
Pigram, John. 1980. Outdoor Recreation & Resource management, Routledge: New York.
James, P. E. and Clarence, F. Jones. 1954. American Geography Inventory and Prospects, Association of American Geographers: Syracruse.

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Geog: 665 Metropolitan Transportation

Accessibility, land use, and social implications of urban transportation, relationship between urban and use and transportation, accessibility and urban dwellers, urban transportation systems, network, modes, flow, inventory, system operation, modes of urban transport: patterns and related issues, road transport, rail transport, water transport; ports, air transport, urban transportation modal system (UTMS), trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, route or network assignment, metropolitan transportation planning process, models, problem solving process, transportation planning Process, transportation problems, identification and classification of problems, problem hierarchy, transport service problems, problems created by transportation, environmental problems, land use/land values, social problems, infrastructure problems, transportation goals and objectives, basic urban values and goals, goals for transportation, alternate solutions to transport problems, transportation and technologies, transport solutions to transport problems, non-transport solutions to transport problems, metropolitan transportation in Pakistan, main issues related to metropolitan transportation in Pakistan, metropolitan transportation of Karachi; problems and alternate planning strategies, transportation data and techniques of analysis, problems with transport information, geocoding, land use inventory, travel facilities inventory, O-D survey, application of GIS and remote sensing in transportation analysis and planning.
Lab
Field surveys/study of various problems using statistical methods.
Suggested Readings
Katz, B. and Puentes, R. 2005.Taking the High Road: A Metropolitan Agenda for Transportation Reform, Brookings Institution Press: Washington.
Middleton, D.W. 2003. Metropolitan Railways: Rapid transit in America, Indiana University Press: Bloomington.
Taaffe, E.J. 1996. Geography of Transport, Second Edition Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Quddus, Abdul, Syed. 1987. Pattern of Transport in Pakistan, Islamic Book Centre: Lahore.
Rakowski, James, P.E. 1976. Transportation Economics, Gale Research Company: Michigan.
John, W. Dickey. 1975. Metropolitan Transportation Planning, McGraw Hill: New York.
Hurst, M.E.E. 1974. Transportation Geography, McGraw Hill: New York.
Murphy, R.E. 1966. The American City, McGraw Hill: New York.

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Geog: 666 Regional Development Planning

Introduction to regional planning, need for regional planning; inter and intra regional planning; elements, objectives and current ideas in planning; evolution of planning theory, regional concept, concept of a region types of regions, identification and differentiation of administrative, planning and special purpose regions, qualities and problems of a planning region, regional systems and hierarchy, delimitation techniques; relationship between regional and national planning, planning theories, theories in planning, regional growth, locational and economic growth theories, planning information, basic surveys: landuse, demographic socio-economic, transportation and infrastructure; the role of data in plan preparation and relative problems associated with data collection, the planning process, preparation of regional plans, integrated area plan, sectoral plan, local plan, their contents, preparation, programming and presentation, some complex issues in planning process; uncertainty in planning, elements and factors in regional planning, organizations, public participation and political implications, spatial imbalances of economic health, rich and poor areas, recognition and mapping of regional inequalities, basic needs, planning for energy, water supply, health, education, agriculture, transport etc., a comparative study of area development, policies/regional planning in Pakistan and other countries of the world, especially France and Britain, a critical appraisal of regional planning in Pakistan, major challenges, information gap; technology to suit local needs, social welfare and mobilization of masses.
Lab
Preparation of maps of different regions from satellite imageries use of GPS and GIS, demarcation of planning regions based on primary and secondary data, demarcation of planning regions based on statistical methods and use of relevant computer soft wares, preparation of assignment and presentation.
Suggested Readings
Healey, Patsy. 2006. Collaborative Planning, Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies, MacMillan: New York.
Altrack, U. Guntner S. Sandre, Hunning and Peters, D. 2006. Spatial Planning and Urban Development in the New EU Member States, from adjustment to rejuvenation Ash Gate Pub. Ltd.: New York.
Richard, T. and Gates, Le. 2005. Thinking Globally, Acting Regionally, GIS and Data Visualization for social science and public policy research, ESRI: Washington.
Stephen, M. Wheeler. 2004. Planning for sustainability, Towards more live able and ecological communities, Tayler & Franccs Publication: New York.
Harvey, W. Armstrong. 2000. Regional Economics and Policy, Blackwell Publication: London.
Conyers, Diana, Hills and Peter. 1991. An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World, John Wiley: New York.
Paul, J. Clock. 1983. An Introduction to Rural Settlement Planning, Methmen: London.
Cheema, S. Shabbir. 1981. Institutional Dimension of Regional Development in Asia: Singapore.
Lassey, William. R. 1977. Planning in Rural Environment, McGraw Hill: USA.
Falaudi, A. 1977. A Reader in Planning Theory, Pergamon: London.
Peter, Hall. 1976. Urban and Regional Planning, Charles Newton Abbot Pub: London.
Stanley, D. Brunn. 1975. Cities of the world, world regional urban development, Harper Row Pub: New York.

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Geog: 667 Fluvial Geomorphology

Scope of fluvial geomorphology, the river channel: process of valley development, classification of valley, drainage pattern and drainage texture, channel sediments: transportation, bank erosion, deposition, & the frequency and magnitude of river work, hydraulic geometry, the influence of slope, channel shape, channel pattern, river rejuvenation process, river piracy, river terraces and their significance, alluvial deposits and alluvial landforms, development of flood plain and types, alluvial fans and bajadas, river deltas: formation and types, case studies.
Lab
Field study trips to study fluvial process and land forms, analysis of drainage surface, computational analysis of channel geometry, channel discharge.
Suggested Readings
Schaetzl, R. J. and Anderson, S. 2005. Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Thornbury,W.E. 2002. Principle of Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York.
Ritter, Kochel, Miller. 2002. Process Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York.
Ritter, Kochel and Miller. 2001. Process Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York.
Andrew, Miller. 1999. Varieties of Fluvial forms, John Wiley: New York.
Thornbury, W.E. 1991. Principles of Geomorphology, John Wiley: New York.

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Geog: 668 Urban Land Use & Planning

Introduction: definition, history, land has value by way of rent, use & misuse of land, factors influencing land use: people: stage of technological development, cultural compulsions, density distribution, site, city structure: classical models: concentric zone theory, sector theory, multinuclear, central Business district, central city, suburb – western and non-western situation, land value/rental value, accessibility, centripetal & centrifugal forces, historical legacies, cultural factors, land use categories & their representation on a land use map plan, residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, office, assembly, open spaces, vacant land (use unspecified), land use planning, neighborhood unit concept, garden city concept, ekistics approach, study of city plan of Hyderabad, Islamabad & Karachi, zoning laws, city planning, relocation of land use, urban re-development.
Lab
Field visit of downtown, core areas and urban peripheries of Karachi.
Suggested Readings
Herbert, T. D. and Thomas, J. C. 2005. Cities in space: City as Place, 3rd Edition, David Fulton Publishers: London.
Freire, M. and Belinda, Y. P. K. 2004. Enhancing Urban Management in East Asia: Urban and Regional Planning and Development, Ashgate: Burlington
Hall, P. 2002. Urban and Regional Planning, 4th Edition, Routledge: London.
Laurini, R. 2001. Information Systems for Urban Planning, CRC: London.
Davies, K. W. and Herbert, D.T. 1993.Communities with in Cities: An Urban Social Geography, Bellhaven Press: New York.
Herbert, D. and Thomas, J. C. 1982. Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Herbert, T. D and Thomas, J. C. 1982.Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Northam, M. R. 1975. Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Herbert, D. 1972. Urban Geography, David & Charles: Newton Abbot.
Johnson, J. 1968. Urban Geography, Elsevier Science Publishing Co: Atlanta.
Murphy, E. R. 1966. The American city: An urban geography, McGraw-Hill: New York.

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Geog: 673 Management of Water Resources

Sources of fresh water, problems of fresh water resources, methods and techniques of water management, management of water resources in irrigation, desalination and recycling, problems of water supply in urban areas.
Lab
Field visits and case studies.
Suggested Readings
Lackey, R.T. 2005. Economic growth and salmon recovery: an irreconcilable conflict? Fisheries 30(3): 30- 32.
McRae, D. M. and Pearse, P. H. 2004. Treaties and transition: towards a sustainable fishery on Canada's Pacific Coast, Federal-Provincial Joint Task Group Report: 58pp.
Mays. W. L. 2004. Water Resource Systems Management Tools, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill: New York.
Jain, K. S. and Singh P. V. 2003. Water Resources Systems Planning and Management, 1st Edition, Elsevier Science: New York.
Pauly, D, V. Christensen, S. Guénette, T. Pritcher, U. Sumaila, C. Walters, R. Watson, and D. Zeller. 2002. Towards Sustainability in World Fisheries, Nature 418, 8 August, pages 689 – 695.
Karamouz, M. Szidarovszky, F. and Zahraie, B. 2003. Water Resources Systems Analysis, CRC: London.
Lyon, G. J. 2002. GIS for Watershed and Water Resource Management, CRC: London.

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Geog: 674 Disease Ecology and Diffusion of Diseases

Questions of medical Geography, The Human Ecology of disease, Landscape Epidemiology, Developmental change and human health, the Biometeorology of health status, the pollution syndrome, Geographies of disease in economically developed areas, disease diffusion in space, health care delivery systems worldwide, distribution of health care resources, accessibility, utilization and health service planning, data, measures and methodologies, scale, spatial analysis and geographic visualization, study of the incidence and diffusion of diseases in Pakistan.
Lab
Identification of disease cluster places, Ecological parameters collection of vital statistics from mosquitoes and identification of vector on satellite data/GCP.
Suggested Readings
Koch, T. 2005. Cartographies of Diseases: Maps, Mapping and Medicine, Esri Press: Redlands.
Meade, S. Melinda and Earickson, J. Robert. 2000. Medical Geography, The Guilford Press: New York.
Naish, Michael and Warn, Sue. 1993. The Geography of Health, Longman: England.
Akhtar, Rais. 1991. Environment and Health: Themes in Medical Geography, Ashish Publication House: New Delhi.
Cliff, D. Andrew and Haggett, Peter. 1988. Atlas of Disease Distribution, Blackwell Publisher: UK
Learmonth, Andrew. 1988. Disease Ecology, Blackwell Publication: UK.
Dubos, Rene. 1968. Man, Medicine, and Environment, Frederick A. Praeger publisher: New York.

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Geog: 675 Geography of Health Care

Defining health and health care services, historical overview about development of health case services, concept of health and diseases and illness from geographical view point, ecology and health, spatial analysis, geographic pattern of diseases, geographic approach to analyze problems of health care in developed and developing countries, Impact of environment demography and social change on health care services, Spatial pattern of utilization of health care services and accessibility.
Lab
Quantitative analysis and preparing maps collecting data and report writing.
Suggested Readings
Gurtis, Sarah. 2004. Health and Inequality: Geographical Perspective, Sage: New York.
Rao, Mohan. 1999. Disinvesting in Health. The World Bank’s perception on Health, Sage Publications: New York.
Jles, Valerie. 1997. Really Managing Health Care, University Press: Buckingham.
Weiss. L.G, Lonnquist, E. Lynne. 1994. The Sociology of Health, Healing and Illness, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Bradley, W. 1993. Disease Diagnosis and Decisions, John Wiley: New York.
H. D. Seed. 1991. Liberating Medicine, John Wiley: New York.
William, J. Stephen and Torrens, R. Paul. 1988. Introduction to Health Services. Delmar Publishers: New York.

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Geog: 683 Geography of Administration

Introduction to geography of administration, the logic of administrative areas, the concept of territoriality, administration and development images of public administration a structural functional approach, the hierarchy of administrative system, the spatial structure of administrative areas, analysis of their shape, size and functional effectiveness, administrative systems of unitary and federal states, measures of functional effectiveness of an administrative area, administrative area reform, the effect of administrative area on economic and political life of a nation, a case study of Pakistan: evolution of administrative units in Pakistan, the hierarchy of administrative units in Pakistan, shifting of federal capital from Karachi to Islamabad, provincial capitals.
Lab
Preparation of assignment on a selected political area administrative unit of Pakistan or any part of the world.
Suggested Readings
Herod, A.O. Tuathail, G. and Reberts, S.M. 1998. An Unruly World? Globalization, Governance and Geography, Routledge: New York.
Woodhouse, D. 1997. In Pursuit of Good Administration, Clarendon Press. Oxford.
Bryan, H. Massam. 1972. Spatial Structure of Administrative Systems, Resource Paper No. 12, Association of American Geographers: Washington D.C.
Edward W. Saja. 1971. The Political Organization of Space Resource Paper No. 8, Association of American Geographers: Washington D.C.
Zaidi, I.H. 1961. Administrative Areas of West Pakistan: A Geographical Evaluation, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Syracess: New York.

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Geog: 684 Geography of Religion

A definition of religion, The Universatality of religion Theories of the origin of religion( The Animistic theories, The nature worship theory The theory of Original Monotheism, The magic theory, The Wishfulfillment theory, Types of religions. Intro to Geography & Intro to Geog of Religion ,Geography of South Asia Hinduism, Geography of Southeast Asia,Buddhism.,Geography of East Asia ,Taoism; Zen Buddhism, Islam; Judaism, Geography of Europe, Geography of Latin America , Roman Catholicism.
Lab
Analysis of the spatial distribution and pattern of world religions.
Suggested Readings
De Blij, H. J. 2003. Human geography: Culture and Society, John Wiley: New York.
Fellmann, A. Getis. 2003. Human geography, McGraw Hills: New York.
Scott, Foreman and De Blij, H. J. 1989. World geography, Scott Foresman and Company: Illinois.
Rubenstein, M. James. 1989. The cultural landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, Merril Publishing Company: Columbus.
Raw and Michael. 1986. Understanding human geography: A Practical Approach, Bell and Hymann: London.

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Geog: 686 Electoral Geography

History and development of electoral geography, geography and electoral studies, electoral system and electoral data, geographical methods and approaches to electoral data analysis, elections: the plurality system preferential system, list system, mixed system, referenda & plebiscites, electoral data, voting records and ecological analysis, survey data and opinion polls, geography of voting: political regionalism in a nation-state, political cleavage formation and political parties, mobilization of peripheries, the distribution of party voters, social bases of geographies of voting, geographical influences in voting, the constituencies and their effect on voting behavior, the neighborhood effect, empirical studies suggesting neighborhood effects rival hypothesis, candidates issues and campaigns, voting for the candidate: the friends and neighbors effect, voting on issues, the campaign, geography of representation, electoral abuses, numerical discrimination electoral reform, the problem of alternative geographies, the problem of alternative electoral system, towards a geography of power, geography, elections, representation and power, the geography of representative behavior, the value of votes, direct democracy.
Lab
Statistical and cartographic analysis elections in various parts of the world, submission of lab./assignment on case studies.
Suggested Readings
Held, D. 1995. Democracy and Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance, Stanford University Press: Stanford.
Guinier, L. 1994. The Tyranny of the Majority, Free Press: New York.
Gronfinan, B. Handlley, L. Niemi R. 1992. Minority Representation and the Quest for voting Equality, Cambridge University Press: New York.
Taylor, P.J. Johnston, R.J. 1979. Geography of Elections, Penguin: London.

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Geog: 687 Prehistoric Culture of Pakistan

Prehistoric environments, the earliest human groups and tools makers, the Paleolithic cultural phase, the Mesolithic cultural phase, the Neolithic cultural phase, the Indus Civilization, the Pre-Harapan cultural phase: Amri, Kulli, Kot Deji etc. Harapan cultural phases: Origin of urban societies, Indian cities, decline of Indus Civilization, Post Harapan cultural phase.
Lab
Techniques of stone tool making, study of prehistoric implements and artifacts sketching of stone tools and ceramics, visit of prehistoric sites in Sindh and Balochistan.
Suggested Readings
Kenoyer, J. 2004. Indus Valley Civilization Publisher, Oxford University Press: Oxford
Allchin, F.R. 1995. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Cremo, Michael, A. 1998. Forbidden Archeology, Torchlight Publishers: San Jose.
Bridget and Allchin. 1988. The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan, Cambridge University Press: London.

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Geog: 691 Agro Climatology

Study of impacts of weather and climate on crops, cropping pattern, crop combination, application of water balance, agro climatic regions of Pakistan.
Lab
Agro climatic regions map of Pakistan, analysis of agro climatic regions.
Suggested Readings
Thompson, D. R. and Perry, A. 2005. Applied Climatology. 1st Edition. Taylor and Francis: London.
Mavis, S. H. and Tupper, J. G. 2004. Agro Meteorology Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture, International Book Distributing Co: Charbagh. Lucknow.
Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S. 2004. Agricultural Geography, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Dehli.
Barry, G. R. 2001. Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology, 1st Edition, Routledge: New York.
Gliessman, R. Stephen, Krieger, R. and Engles E. 1998. Agro ecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture, CRC: London.
Khan, A. Jamil. 1993. The Climate of Pakistan, Rehbar Publishers: Karachi.

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Geog: 692 Geography of Settlement

Scope of settlement Geography, hierarchy of settlements and central place theory, urban settlements: origin and spread of cities, western and non-western urbanization, urban structure, western and nonwestern urban land use models, classification of urban settlements, urban fringe, suburbs satellites and urban sprawl, Rural Settlements: rural settlements forms and pattern, rural settlement types: dispersed, compact, nucleated, structure and land use of rural settlements, functional characteristics of rural settlements.
Lab
Study of structure and land use of urban and rural settlements, application of central place theory in settlement. Study, field visit of villages and cities, case studies.
Suggested Readings
Woods, Michael. 2005. Rural Geography, Sage publication: New York.
Michael, Pacione. 2001. Urban Geography, Routledge: New York.
William, Hornby. 2000. Settlement Geography, Cambridge University Press: London
Jones, M. 1989. Geography of Settlement, Longman: UK.
Hudson. 1988. Settlement Geography, John Wiley: New York

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Geog: 693 Rural Settlements and House Types

Geographic approach to rural settlement, spatial pattern and classification of rural settlements: western and non-western patterns of rural settlements (Anglo America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia), rural settlement types in Pakistan, structure and land use of rural settlements, rural house types: geographical approach of the study of rural house types: structure, construction techniques and materials, cultural characteristics, Log houses of Anglo America, Latin American rural house types, folk houses of Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, rural house types in Pakistan.
Lab
Analysis, sketches and diagrams of rural settlement types in different countries, study of rural settlements, land use of villages of different areas of Pakistan, study of settlement pattern and functions, sketches of folk houses in different areas of Pakistan, field visits of villages.
Suggested Readings
Woods, Michael. 2005. Rural Geography, Sage publication: New York.
Clayton. 2003. Rural Planning in Developing Countries, Earthscon publishing: London.
Norton. 2000. Cultural Geography, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Chisholm, M. 1987. Rural Settlement and Land use, John Wiley: New York.
Spencer, Thomas. 1978. Introducing Cultural Geography, John Wiley: New York
Kappapot. 1969. House form and Culture, Englewood Cliff: New York.

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Geog: 694 Rural Geography

Scope of rural geography, process of rural change: modernity and the rural world, agricultural change, changing rural economy, social and demographic change, counter urbanization, rural development and planning, rural governance, rural life style housing, health, poverty etc. rural recreation and tourism.
Lab
Assignment and presentation on rural problems, rural life style, rural planning, visit of rural areas, case studies. A visit to rural areas of Karachi & Thatta.
Suggested Readings
Michael, Woods. 2005. Rural Geography, Sage publication: London.
Butler, R. 1998. Rural recreation and tourism, Longman: London.
Spencer and Thomas. 1978. Introducing Cultural Geography, John Wiley: New York
Clout, H.D. 1972. Rural Geography, Oxford University press: Oxford
Kappapot. 1969. House form and Culture, Englewood Cliff: New York.

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Geog: 695 Globalization and Development

The idea of globalization, globalization as an economic process, international economy and globalization, forces of globalization, technological based industrial centers, impact of globalization on sub-national, national and regional economics, regional impact of trade and changes in trade regimes political factors of trade regimes and trade flows, FDI and investment in developing countries, role of WTO.
Lab
Literature survey of global problems, drafting of presentation maps on global issues. Case Studies.
Suggested Readings
Ball, R. 1997. The role of the state in the globalization of labour market: the case of the Phillippines, Environment and Planning 29. 1603-28.
Angel, D. and Savage, L. 1996. Global locatization Japanese Researched Development Laboraties in the USA-Environment and Planning 28, 819-33
Amin, A and Thrift, N. 1984. Globalization, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe, Oxford University Press: Oxford.

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Geog: 696 Arid-Land: Desertification and Management

Definition of arid areas, world arid land, desertification problems and management, impact of climatic change, global problems of desertification, physical, anthropogenic and cultural factors, Degradation in Pakistan, Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), Desertification in Pakistan, National Action Plan
Lab
Case study and field visits.
Suggested Readings
Lackey, R.T. 2005. Economic growth and salmon recovery: an irreconcilable conflict? Fisheries 30(3): 30- 32.
Gleick, P. 2000. The changing water paradigm: A look at twenty-first century water resources development, Water International 25(1), 127 – 138
Guha, R. 2000. Environmentalism: A global history New York, Longman: New York.
Ludwig, Hilborn, R. and Walters, C. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: Science 260: 36.

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Geog: 697 Urban Ecology

Study of urban environment, urban pollution and management, solid waste management, air pollution and its effects on health, heat islands, Green areas deterioration, Culture and Ecological indicators, Green verses Grey areas, Dynamic segmentation of Land cover and Land use, Environmental Justice, Distribution of Pollutants and Civic amenities
Lab
Study of selected urban areas with special reference to environmental problems.
Suggested Readings
Herbert, T. D. and Thomas, J. C. 2005. Cities in space: City as Place, 3rd Edition, David Fulton Publishers: London.
Lackey, R.T. 2005. Economic growth and salmon recovery: an irreconcilable conflict? Fisheries 30(3): 30- 32.
Gleick, P. 2000. The changing water paradigm: A look at twenty-first century water resources development’ Water International 25(1), 127 – 138.
Guha, R. 2000. Environmentalism: A global history, Longman: New York
Ludwig, D. Hilborn, R. and Walters, C, 1993 Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history Science 260: 36.
Davies, K. W. and Herbert, D.T. 1993.Communities with in Cities: An Urban Social Geography, Bellhaven Press: New York.
Herbert, D. and Thomas, J. C. 1982. Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Herbert, T. D and Thomas, J. C. 1982.Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Freedman, B. 1998. Environmental Science: A Canadian perspective, Scarborough, Prentice Hall: Canada.

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Geog: 698 Geographies of Gender and Identities

Defining and conceptualizing feminist and gender geography, feminist theories, difference and polities of knowledge, emergence of feminist geography, space, place and gender: a theoretical perceptions, gendering spaces of work, public and private, gender, globalization and development, gender and environment, gender, national and the polities.
Lab
Preparing maps, field work and report writing.
Suggested Readings
Ronnie, Vernooy. 2006. Social and Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Development. Learning Studies and Lessions from Asia, Sage: New York.
Jon, Murdoch. 2005. Part-structuralize Geography. A Guide to Relational Space, Sage: New York.
Phil, Hubbard. 2005. Key Thinkers on Space and Place, Sage: New York.
Sumi, Krishna. 2005. Lively hood and Gender, Sage: New York
Kofman, E, Ragheeram, P. 2005. Gender and Skilled Migrants: Into and Beyond the Workplace, Special
Issue of Geoforum. Vol. 36, No.2 pp. 149-154.
Lunn, Stacheh, M. Kopman and Linda, Peake. 2005. Mapping Gender, Making Policies: Ferminist Perspectives on Political Geography, Routledge: New York.
Neel, Castree. 2004. Spaces of Work. Global Capitalism and Geographic of Labours, Sage: New York.

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Geog: 699 Advanced Cartography

Course introduction, cartographic design, typography and lettering the map, color use guidelines, symbolization, visualization and its historical context, under represented populations in cartography, distributed GIS, internet mapping for education, commercial web mapping programs, internet mapping.
Lab
Cartographic design in ArcGIS 9: module 1 big picture design.
Cartographic design in ArcGIS 9: module 2 type basics
Cartographic design in ArcGIS 9: module 3 effective type in map design
Cartographic design in ArcGIS 9: module 4 color basics; and module 5 Color decisions in decisions for mapping
Cartographic design in ArcGIS 9: module 6 creating custom symbols
Cartographic design in ArcGIS 9: module 7customizing map elements
Open lab for mapping project
ArcIMS
Suggested Readings
Baker, Thomas. 2005. Internet-Based GIS Mapping in Support of K-12 Education: The Professional Geographer 57 (1): 44-50.
Tang, Winnie, Jan and Selwood. 2003. Connecting Our World. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press: Redlands.
Peng, Zhong-Ren, Ming-Hsiang and Tsou. 2003. Internet GIS: Distributed Geographic Information Services for the Internet and Wireless Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons: New York. Nelson, S, Elisabeth. 2000. The Impact of Bivariate Symbol Design on Task Performance in a Map Setting, Cartographica. 37(4): 61-77.
Van, Den, Hoonaard, Will. 2000. Getting There without Aiming at It: Women’s Experiences in Becoming Cartographers, Cartographica. 37(3): 47-60.
H. Wood, C. Peter and Keller, Cartographic Design: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives, John Wiley & Sons: New York.
Robinson, A. H. 1995. Elements of Cartography, 6th edition, John Wiley: New York

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____________________________________________________________________

M.S./M.PHIL. GEOGRAPHY

____________________________________________________________________

Eligibility
Students who have completed M. Sc or BS (4 years) in Geography are eligible to apply for admission.
Duration
2 years
one year comprises two semesters of course works
one year for completion of thesis)
Total Credit hours 24
Courses:
Total 8 courses: 4 courses per semester
3 compulsory courses and 5 optional courses
Note: Selection of the optional courses will be decided by the supervisors. Total 5 optional courses will be selected in two semesters. At least two optional courses will be selected from special group while remaining three optional courses will be taken either from other special groups or courses of allied subjects.

M.S./ M.Phil. Course Work


M.S./ M.Phil. First Semester
1. Research Methodology paper I (Compulsory)
2. Optional Paper I
3. Optional Paper II
4. Optional Paper III
M.S./ M.Phil. Second Semester
1. Research Methodology paper II (Compulsory)
2. Research Communication Skills (Compulsory)
3. Optional Paper II
4. Optional Paper III

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Special Groups of Courses

  1. Environmental Management
  2. Geo-informatics
  3. Medical Geography
  4. Urban Geography
  5. Cultural Geography
  6. Political Geography
  7. Economic Geography
  8. Tourism and Recreation
  9. Physical Geography
  10. Population Geography

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1. Environmental Management

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Environmental PerceptionGeog: 780
2. Environmental Cognition and GeographyGeog: 781
3. Foundations of Hazards and Disaster studiesGeog: 782
4. Environmental Impact and AnalysisGeog: 783
5. Landscape EcologyGeog: 784

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2. Geo-informatics

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Global Positioning SystemGeog: 790
2. SurveyingGeog: 791
3. Introduction to Remote SensingGeog: 792
4. Advanced Geographical Information SystemsGeog: 793
5. Advanced Remote Sensing and Image ProcessingGeog: 794
6. Introduction to Geographical Information Systems and Spatial AnalysisGeog: 795

3 Medical Geography

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Medical Geography Geog: 770
2. Geography of Health CareGeog: 771
3. GIS and Public HealthGeog: 772
4. Spatial Diffusion of Diseases in PakistanGeog: 773

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4 Urban Geography

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Urban Geography Geog:701
2. Urban land use Planning Geog:702
3. Urban Planning & Development Geog:703
4. Geography of Retailing Geog:704
5. Geography of Urban Transportation Geog:705
6. Urban Ecology Geog:706
7. Urban Geography of Pakistan Geog:707
8. Central Place System Geog:708
9. Locational Analysis Geog:709
10. Spatial Analysis Geog:710

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5 Cultural Geography

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Settlement Geography Geog: 721
2. Rural Settlement and House Types Geog: 722
3. Rural Settlements of Pakistan Geog: 733
4. Cultural Systems of the World Geog: 756
5. Pre-Historic Culture Geog: 757
6. Pre- Historic Culture of Pakistan Geog: 758

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6. Political Geography

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Political Geography Geog: 711
2. Electoral Geography Geog: 712
3. Geography of Administration Geog: 713
4. Political Systems of the World Geog: 714
5. Territorial Disputes and Conflicts Geog: 715
6. Water Resources and Management Geog: 719
7. Geography of Crimes Geog: 794
8. Administrative Geography of Pakistan Geog: 796
9. Political Geography of Pakistan Geog: 797
10. Geopolitics in South Asia Geog: 798

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7 Economic Geography

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Rural Geography Geog: 744
2. Rural Development and Change Geog: 755
3. Transportation Geography Geog: 759
4. Economic Systems of the World Geog: 766
5. Manufacturing Geography Geog: 767
6. Agricultural Geography of Pakistan Geog: 771

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8 Tourism and Recreation

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
1. Geography of Tourism & Recreation Geog: 741
2. The Geography of Sports Geog: 742
3. Geography of Eco-Tourism Geog: 743
4. Rural Tourism Geog: 744
5. Urban Tourism Geog: 745
6. Adventure Travel & Tourism Geog: 746
7. Geography of Sports Tourism Geog: 747
8. Mountain Travel and Tourism Geog: 748
9. Coastal and Marine Tourism Geog: 749
10. Heritage Tourism Geog: 750

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9. Physical Geography

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
Applied Climatology Geog: 773
Agro Climatology Geog: 769
Coastal Geomorphology Geog: 763
Geomorphology of Arid Land Geog: 761
Dluvial Geomorphology Geog: 760
Geomorphology of Pakistan Geog: 764

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10. Population Geography

Course Outlines

Course Name Course No.
Population Geography Geog: 777
Migration and Regional Development Geog: 779

Environmental Management

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GEOG: 780 ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION


Course Contents:
Introduction; Human sensory perception, Proxemic Studies: Personal and Interpersonal Space, Human development, space and place: Children's Geographies, Topophilia: Love of Place, Love of Home, Maps In Minds: Cognitive maps, Way-finding and Mental Maps, Experiencing Urban Environments, Hazard Perception: The Urban Environment, Hazard Perception: Adjustment & Risk Perception, Environmental Values and The Rest of the World: Paradigm Shift and Environmental Attitude.
Suggested Readings:
Freedman, B. (1998) “Environmental Science: A Canadian perspective”, Scarborough Prentice Hall: Canada, pp. 182 – 199
Gleick, P. (2000) “The Changing Water Paradigm: A look at twenty-first century water resources development”, Water International 25(1), 127 – 138
Guha, R. (2000) “Environmentalism: A global history”, Longman: New York, pp. 69 – 97
Lackey, R.T. (2005) “Economic growth and salmon recovery: an irreconcilable conflict”, Fisheries 30(3): 30-32.
McRae, D. M. and Pearse, P. H. (2004) “Treaties and transition: towards a sustainable fishery on Canada's Pacific Coast”, Federal-Provincial Joint Task Group Report: 58pp.
Pauly, D., V. Christensen, S. Guénette, T. Pritcher, U. Sumaila, C. Walters, R. Watson, D. Zeller. (2002) “Towards Sustainability in World Fisheries”, Nature 418, 8 August, pages 689 – 695.
Slocombe, S. (2004) “Applying an Ecosystem Approach’ in B. Mitchell: Resource and Environmental Management in Canada: Addressing Conflict and Uncertainty”, 3rd edition, Oxford University press: Toronto , pages 420 - 441
Stokstad, E. (2005) “Taking the pulse of Earth’s life support systems”, Science 308, 41 – 43.
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GEOG: 781 ENVIRONMENTAL COGNITION AND GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents:
Introduction, Perceptions of micro-space, Defensible space, The behavioural basis of design, Mental Maps: the neighbourhood, city, region, and nation. Living space preferences, Phenomenology, emotion and nostalgia. Attitudes to the landscape; the place of the past in landscapes of the present. Placing the past in the present. Symbols and identity in the landscapes Symbolism in urban design and urban architecture. The semiotics of landscape, The image of the city and region, Cognition towards the environment, Attitudes to landscapes in Muslim Culture, Changing cultural values and the ideology of landscape Perception of Natural Hazards, Environmental perception and settlement in Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Anthony. (2004) “Hope and Despair: How Perceptions of the future shape Human Behavior”, The John Hopkins University Press: Washington.
Beg, M. and Ali, Arshad. (1987) “Air Pollution in Karachi”, Pakistan Journal of Science and Industrial Research, Vol, 30, No. 1, pp. 60-71.
Burton, Ian, Robert W. Kates and Gilbert F, White. (1978) “The Environment as Hazard”, Oxford University Press: New York.
Greenburg, M.R. (1978) “Environmental Impact Statement”, Resource Paper No. 78-3, Association of American Geographers: USA.
Kjellstrom, Tord. (1988) “Health Hazards of the Environment: Measuring the Harm”, World Health, pp. 2-5.
Mira, R. Garcia. (2006) “Environmental Perception and Cognitive Maps”, Psychology Press: New York.
Saarinen, F.T. and Sell, L. James. (1984) “Environmental Perception and Behavior: An Inventory and Prospect”, The University of Chicago: Chicago.
Schwartz, Robert. (2003) “Perception”, Blackwell Publication: Oxford.
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GEOG: 782 FOUNDATIONS OF HAZARDS AND DISASTER STUDIES


Course Contents:
Introduction to hazard and disaster studies, Defining hazards and disasters, Global Distibution of Hazards, Myths, Illusions, and Realities of Natural Disaster, Disaster history (World and Pakistan), Unacceptable Threat, Vulnerability and Risk, Functional classification of hazards, Types of Disasters, Disaster Systematics and use of Hazard Trees, Mitigation and disaster resistance, United Nations ReliefWeb, Planning in emergency management, Preparedness - Response planning, Mitigation planning, Case Studies
Suggested Readings:
Ansal and Atilla. (2004) “Recent Advances in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering and Microzonation”, Springer: New York.
Bennett, Robert and Estall, Robert. (1991) “Global Change and Challenge: Geography for the 1990”, Routledge: London.
Ittelson, H. William. (1973) “Environment and Cognition”, Seminar Press: New York.
James W. Morentz, Hugh C. Russell, and Judith A. Kelly. (1982) “Practical Mitigation: Strategies for Managing Disaster Prevention and Reduction”, Research Alternatives: Maryland.
Lawrence P. D. (2003) “Environmental Impact Assessment”, Practical Solutions to
Marriott, B. B. (1997) “Environmental Impact Assessment: A Practical Guide”, 1st Edition, McGraw- Hill: New York.
Morris, Peter and Therival, Riki. (2001) “Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment”, Spon Press: London.
Schwartz, Robert. (2003) “Perception”, Blackwell Publication: Oxford.
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GEOG: 783 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ANALYSIS


Course Contents:
Background of environmental impact assessment (EIA), Historical Outline, EIA in Pakistan, Planning and Management Studies, Impact Definition, Matrices and Network, Environmental Setting (Affected Environment), Environmental Indices, Prediction and Assessment, EIA procedures and methods, Methods of Environment components, Public involvement in EIA, Initial Examination (IE), Environmental audit, Strategic environmental assessment, Impacts upon the physical environment: water, air and land, Assessment of ecological impacts, Socio-economic impacts, and consideration of alternatives in EIA and EIS review. Environmental impact assessment, EIA in Pakistan, EPA guidelines for various projects, GIS Tools for EIA, Pakistan Environmental Act (1997), Project Impacts (Air, Water, Groundwater, Flora and Fauna), Public Participation, Decision and Alternates, Case Studies (Guidelines Developed by PEPA)
Suggested Readings:
Bennett, Robert and Estall, Robert. (1991) “Global Change and Challenge: Geography for the 1990”, Routledge: London.
Ervin, H. Zube. (1984) “Environment Evaluation: Perception and public policy”, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. John Wiley: New York.
Lawrence P. D. (2003) “Environmental Impact Assessment: Practical Solutions to Recurrent Problems”,
Marriott, B. B. (1997) “Environmental Impact Assessment: A Practical Guide”, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill: New York.
Morris, Peter and Therival, Riki. (2001) “Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment”, Spon Press: London. Prentice Hall: New Jersey
Schwartz, Robert. (2003) “Perception”, Blackwell Publication: Oxford.
Burton, Ian, Robert W. Kates and Gilbert F, White. (1978) “The Environment as Hazard”, Oxford University Press: New York.
Greenburg, M.R. (1978) “Environmental Impact Statement”, Resource Paper No. 78-3, Association of American Geographers: USA.
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GEOG: 784 LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY


Course Contents:
Scope of landscape ecology; conceptual issues and foundations; Causes of landscape pattern; Quantifying pattern: Landscape metrics and interpretation; multiple metrics;Understanding landscape metrics; Spatial statistics: Why, how, and how these methods are used; Scale detection: using semivariograms and autocorrelograms; Landscape models –neutral landscape models, spatial models; Disturbance and landscapes– Reciprocal pattern-process, thresholds, interactions; Spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem processes– approaches, feedbacks from organisms, when does space matter?; Modeling ecosystem processes; Applied landscape ecology—Land use change, invasive species; Emerging directions – Landscape ecology and ecosystem services; Future directions–where does landscape ecology go from here?
Course Contents:
Monica Turner, R. H. Gardner, and R. V. O'Neill (2003) Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process, Springer; 1st. ed. 2001. Corr. 2nd printing edition (May 20, 2003)
Sarah E. Gergel and Monica G. Turner (2003). Learning Landscape Ecolog. Springer;
Richard T. T. Forman, Michel Godron (1986). Landscape Ecology. Wiley
Almo Farina (2007). Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology: Towards a Science of the Landscape (Landscape Series), Springer; 2nd ed. edition Department of Geography MS (Geography)
Richard T. T. Forman (1995). Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions, Cambridge University Press
Jingle Wu and Richard Hobbs (Eds) (2007). Key Topics in Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Jingle Wu., Bruce. Jones and O. L. Loucks (Eds). (2006). Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands

Geo-informatics


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GEOG: 790 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS


Course Contents:
Introduction to GPS, GPS Systems: NAVSTAR System, GLASSNOT, GALILEO System, GPS Segments: Space Segment, Control Segment, User Segment, The Time Concept in GPS, Precise Positioning Service, Standard Positioning Service, GPS Data, GPS value reading, Easting Northing & elevation, Map Projections and Datum Settings, GPS based surveys, tracking and data processing, Planimetric & vertical errors calculations, Position and Time from GPS, Code Phase and Pseudo- Range Navigation, Receiver Position, Carrier Phase Tracking (Surveying), GPS Satellite Signals, GPS Error Sources, Differential GPS Techniques, Differential Code-Phase Navigation, Differential Carrier-Phase Surveying, Common-Mode Time Transfer, GPS Techniques and Project Costs, Exploration of advanced system as differential GPS, , GPS Project, GPS and GIS (Data Import and Export)
Suggested Readings:
Aronoff, S. (2006), "Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective", Black Well Publications, Ottawa, Canada, Forth edition
Getting started with GPS Surveying .GPSCO Land Information centre, NSW, Australia.
Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S. (1999), “An introduction to Geographic Information System”, Addison Wesley Longman, New York, second edition.
Kennedy, M. (2002), “The Global Positioning System and GIS: An Introduction” 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, New York.
Zarchan, P. (1996), “Global Positioning System: Theory and Application, Volume I, American Institute of Aeronautics and Austronautics, Inc., Washington DC.
Erle, S., Gibson, R., Walsh, J. (2005), “Mapping Hacks: Tips & Tools for Electronic Cartography”, O’Reilly Media, China.
Letham, L. (1995), “GPS”, Rockey Mountain Books, Calgary.
Monmonier, M. (2002), “Spying with Maps”, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
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GEOG: 791 SURVEYING


Course Contents:
Introduction of surveying, Need of Surveying, classifications of surveying, scales, survey tasks, principles and methods, Coordinates and datum, accuracy and precision, measurement and errors, coordinate systems and computation, direct distance measurements, errors in measurement of distance and corrections, height measures, leveling and its types, bench marks, sources of errors in leveling and accuracies, angular measurements, reading systems of optical theodolites, measuring angles and adjustments, indirect distance measurements, contouring plans by level and staff, section and cross-sections, precise and reciprocal leveling, traverse survey, triangulation and trilateration, GPS survey. Instrumental surveys will be included for measuring the distance, angles and heights. Major emphasis will be towards theodolite and leveling surveys, The total station experience, DGPS and Total Station Data Comparison, Embedding survey data into a GIS
Suggested Readings:
Anderson, J. M., Mikhail E. M. (1998), “Surveying Theory and Practice”, 7th Ed.,
McCormac J. C., McCourmac J. C., Anderson W. (1999), “Surveying”, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, UK,
Wirshing R., Wirshing R. J. (1985), “Schaum's Outline of Introductory Surveying”, Wiley, UK,
Wolf P R., Ghilani C. (2005), “Elementary Surveying : An Introduction to Geomatics” , 11th Edition, Prentice Hall, USA
Erle, S., Gibson, R., Walsh, J. (2005), “Mapping Hacks: Tips & Tools for Electronic Cartography”, O’Reilly Media, China.
Letham, L. (1995), “GPS”, Rockey Mountain Books, Calgary.
Monmonier, M. (2002), “Spying with Maps”, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
McCoy, M. R. (2005) “Field Methods in Remote Sensing”, The Guilford Press, New York.
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GEOG: 792 INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE SENSING


Course Contents:
Basic Concept of Light and its interaction with earth surface, Understanding the concept of Electromagnetic Spectrum, Atmospheric Interaction, Physical basis of remote sensing, Active and Passive Remote Sensors, sensor systems (Orbits, Satellites, Sensors and Platforms), Multidisciplinary applications of Remote Sensing, Digital Image processing cycle overview, Image Processing Software – Environment, data formats, image pre-processing, Noise Corrections, geometric rectification, registration and re-sampling, Radiometric Corrections, image classification types and algorithms, accuracy assessment techniques, confusion matrices, Data Fusion and Mosaicing. Multi-disciplinary applications Single band image interpretation, False color predictions, False color composite Images Interpretation, Visual Interpretation of aerial photographs, Various sensors data comparison, Thermal Infrared Image interpretation, Introduction to ERDAS Imagine, display, Geo-linking, Zooming, . Introduction to labs., 10 Hands-on Exercise on RS data, Identification of targets, and Ground Truthing through Field Trips.
Suggested Readings:
Aronoff, S. (2007) “Remote Sensing for GIS Managers”, ESRI Press: Redlands.
Campbell, J. B. (2006) “Introduction to Remote Sensing”, 4th Edition, The Guilford Interpretation”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Academic Press ISBN: 0126289816 New York.
Robert A. Schowengerdt (1997) “Remote Sensing”, 2nd edition, Academic Press, United Kingdom. ISBN: 0521669480
Lillesand, K. and R. W. (2004) “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation”, 5th Edition, John Wiley: New York.
W. G. Rees (2001) “Physical Principles of Remote Sensing”, Cambridge University
Campbell and James, B. (2006) “Introduction to Remote Sensing”, 3rd Edition, The Guilford Press: New York.
Jensen, J. (2006) “Remote Sensing of the Environment: An Earth Resources Perspective”, Prentice Hall: London.
Maantay, J., Ziegler, J. (2006) “GIS for the urban environment”, ESRI Press: Redlands, California.
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GEOG: 793 ADVANCED GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS


Course Contents:
Coordinate System and Map Projection, Drawing of Map Projections and Error Estimations, Understanding of Cartographic Errors and Rectification Procedures, Cleaning and Editing Cartographic Data Visualization of Geospatial Data, Symbolization and Map Layouts Development, 3D Visualization of Spatial Data, Alternate Approaches for Mapping (Geocoding, Survey Data Integration), Geocoding and Survey Data Integration in GIS, Point Pattern Analysis, Lines and Networks, Performing Network Analysis, Area Objects and Spatial Autocorrelation, Describing and Analyzing Fields, Spatial Interpolations, Geo-statistical Analysis, Map Overlay Analysis, Multivariate Data, Multidimensional Space and Spatialization, GIS Modeling and Related Issues. Spatial Analyses: Conditional, Density, Distance, Extraction, Generalization, Ground Water, Hydrology, Interpolation, Local, Map Algebra, Mathematical, Multivariate, Neighborhood, Overlay, Raster Creation, Reclassification, Surface and Zonal Analysis. 3D Analysis: Conversion, Functional Surfaces, TIN Creation and TIN Surface Analysis in ArcMap and 3D visualization in ArcScene and ArcGlobe
Suggested Readings:
Aronoff, S. (2004) "Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective", WDL Publications, Ottawa, Fifth Edition.
Burrough, P. ( 2002) “Principles of Geographic Information Systems for Land Resources Management”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Second Edition.
Clarke, K. (2006) “Getting started with Geographic Information System”, Prentice Hall , New York, Second Edition.
Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S. (2003) “ An introduction to Geographic Information System”, Addison Wesley Longman, New York, Second Edition.
Jacek Malczewski (1999) “GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, .
McDonald, R. and Burrough, P. (2001) “Principles of Geographic Information Systems”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Second Edition
Stewart Fotheringham, Chris Brunsdon, Martin E Charlton (2000)” Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis”, SAGE Publications
Stillwell, J. (2004) “Applied GIS and Spatial Analysis”, John Wiley & Sons: London
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GEOG: 794 ADVANCED REMOTE SENSING AND IMAGE PROCESSING


Course Contents:
Advanced image processing, analysis and interpretation, human vision and colour, the construction, arithmetic operations, empirically based image transformations, filtering of images, discrete Fourier transformations, principal components analysis, and spatial modeling, advanced image classifications such as fuzzy classifications, neural classifiers, spatial and spectral segmentation, sub pixel classification. SAR interferometry, applications of SAR interferometry, image spectrometry, Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral data, Image Residuals, Absorptionband Parameters, Spectral Derivative Ratio, Classification Algorithms for Hyperspectral Data, radar remote sensing, speckle noise and suppression, texture analysis, data Fusion, DEM extraction from stereo SAR. Thermal Remote Sensing, Image Composition Development for Multi Spectral, Image Enhancement and Filters, Image Fusions, Advanced Image Classification: Sub-pixel Classifiers, Classification Schemes, Indices Development: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Leaf Area Index, Computer-based exercises are an essential part of this course.
Suggested Readings:
Campbell, B. J. (2006)” Introduction to Remote Sensing”, 4th Ed., The Guilford Press, New York,
Egan, W. G. and Egan, W. (2003) “Optical Remote Sensing: Science and Technology”, (Optical Engineering) Marcel Dekker: New York
Elachi, C. (1988) “Spaceborne Radar Remote Sensing: Applications and Techniques”, IEEE Press, New York.
Henderson, F.M. and Lewis, A. J (1998) “Principles & Application Imaging radar”, Manual of Remote Sensing / Third Edition, Volume 2, Published in Cooperation with the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Landgrebe, D. A. (2003) “Signal Theory Methods in Multispectral Remote Sensing (Wiley Series in Remote Sensing and Image Processing)”, Wiley- Interscience; Bk&CD-Rom edition: New York, ISBN: 047142028X.
Mather, P. (2004) “Computer processing of remotely sensed images”, Third Edition, John Wiley: New York
McCoy, R. (2004) “Field Methods in Remote Sensing”, The Guilford Press: New York,
Peebles, P.Z (1998) “Radar Principles”, Wiley Inter science, New York.
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GEOG: 795 INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS


Course Contents:
Geographical Information System and Spatial Systems, Introduction to Arc GIS, Data Types (Spatial /Aspatial), Data Models & Structures (Raster / Vector), Exploring GIS Dataset in Arc Catalog, Data Sources and Capturing Techniques, Displaying and Manipulating spatial information, Vector Data Preparation ,Working on vector data in Arc GIS, Integrating GPS data in GIS Environment, Multidisciplinary Applications of GIS, Understanding the concept (vector, raster and statistical analysis), Thematic Mapping, Distance Measurements, Vector Data Query and Object Selection, Buffering, Density Mapping and Map Overlay analysis, Raster/Vector/Attribute Data Display, Coordinate based point mapping, Raster / Vector Conversion, Data layer integration, Conversion of different projections(raster/vector), Map layout, Data Classification and Thematic Mapping, Handling with Topological Errors, Overlay and network analysis.
Suggested Readings:
Aronoff, S. (2004) "Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective" WDL Publications,
Aronoff, S. (2005) “Remote Sensing for GIS Managers”, ESRI Press: Redlands.
Chang, K. (2002) “Introduction to Geographic Information Systems”, McGraw- Hill Company, New York,
Clarke, K. (2004) “Getting started with Geographic Information System”, Prentice Hall, New York, Second Edition.
Duckham, M., Michael F. Goodchild, Michael F. Worboys, (2003) “Foundations of Geographic Information Science”, Tylor & Francis, NewYork, USA
Haining, R. (2003) “Spatial Data Analysis : Theory and Practice”, Cambridge University Press
Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S. (2003) “An introduction to Geographic Information System”, Addison Wesley Longman, New York, Second Edition.
Sullivan, D. and David J. Unwin (2003) “Geographic Information Analysis”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada.

Medical Geography


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GEOG: 770 MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents:
Introduction to concepts, Roots of Medical Geography, Colonialism, Globalization & Disease, Landscape Epidemiology, Environment and Health, Disease Ecology, Ecological Parameters, Factors of Disease, Disease Diffusion, Methods and tools used to investigate geographic aspects of health and disease, Measurements of Health and Disease, Application of concepts and methods through Geographical Techniques, Cartographic Modeling, analysis of health, population and environmental data, Development and Health, Access to Health Care, International Disease Classification, Disease Distribution in Pakistan
Suggested Readings:
Bradley, W. (1993) “Disease Diagnosis and Decisions”, John Wiley: New York.
Gurtis, Sarah. (2004) “Health and Inequality: Geographical Perspective”, Sage: New York.
H. D. Seed. (1991) “Liberating Medicine”, John Wiley: New York.
Jles, Valerie. (1997) “Really Managing Health Care”, University Press: Buckingham.
Rao, Mohan. (1999) “Disinvesting in Health”. The World Bank’s perception on Health, Sage Publications: New York.
Weiss. L.G, Lonnquist, E. Lynne. (1994) “The Sociology of Health, Healing and Illness”, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Koch, T. (2005) “Cartographies of Diseases: Maps, Mapping and Medicine”, Esri Press: Redlands.
Meade, S. Melinda and Earickson, J. Robert. (2000) “Medical Geography”, The Guilford Press: New York.
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GEOG: 771 GEOGRAPHY OF HEALTH CARE


Course Contents:
Geography and Health care, Health Care: Concepts and Definitions, Approaches to Health Care, Spatial Variation in Health Problems of MDCs and LDCs, historical overview about development of health case services, Evaluating Health Care System, Political System and Health Care, Impact of environment demography and social change on health care services, Spatial pattern of utilization of health care services and accessibility, Health Care System in Pakistan, Governmental Policies, Eradication and Control Campaigns, Basic Health Unit (BHU), Demographic Standards and Health.
Suggested Readings:
Frank, J. W., Gibson, B. et al. (1987) “Information needs in epidemiology: detecting the health effects of environmental chemical exposure”, Toronto, Institute for Environmental Studies. University of Toronto.
Hagget, P (1998) “The Geographical Structure of Epidemics”. Oxford: London. Chapter 1, 4
Wallace, R. & Wallace, D. (1997) “Socio-economic determinants of health: Community marginalization and the diffusion of disease and disorder in the United States”, British Medical Journal, 314(7090), 1341-1345.
Gurtis, Sarah. (2004) “Health and Inequality: Geographical Perspective”, Sage: New York.
Rao, Mohan. (1999) “Disinvesting in Health”. The World Bank’s perception on Health, Sage Publications: New York.
Jles, Valerie. (1997) “Really Managing Health Care”, University Press: Buckingham.
Weiss. L.G, Lonnquist, E. Lynne. (1994) “The Sociology of Health, Healing and Illness”, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Bradley, W. (1993) “Disease Diagnosis and Decisions”, John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG 772 GIS AND PUBLIC HEALTH


Course Contents:
Application of tools and methods of analysis in geographic information systems (GIS) to public health. Use of GIS to manage and analyze health, census and spatial data, Application of advanced GIS concepts to real-world projects will focus on development and implementation of a digital geo-spatial database. Provide students with "hands-on" experience in development, management and integration of spatial and non-spatial databases, using GIS database in Spatial Database Engine
Suggested Readings:
Frank, J. W., Gibson, B. et al. (1987) “Information needs in epidemiology: detecting the health effects
H. D. Seed. (1991) “Liberating Medicine”, John Wiley: New York.
Hagget, P (1998) “The Geographical Structure of Epidemics”. Oxford: London. Chapter 1, 4 of environmental chemical exposure”, Toronto, Institute for”, Environmental Studies. University of Toronto.
Wallace, R. & Wallace, D. (1997) “Socioeconomic determinants of health: Community marginalization and the diffusion of disease and disorder in the United States”, British Medical Journal, 314(7090), 1341-1345.
William, J. Stephen and Torrens, R. Paul. (1988) “Introduction to Health Services”, Delmar Publishers: New York.
Rao, Mohan. (1999) Disinvesting in Health. The World Bank’s perception on Health, Sage Publications: New York.
Jles, Valerie. (1997) Really Managing Health Care, University Press: Buckingham.
Bradley, W. (1993) Disease Diagnosis and Decisions, John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 773 SPATIAL DIFFUSION OF DISEASES IN PAKISTAN


Course Contents:
Introduction, The Environmental Settings, Ecological Factors, Factors and Elements of Disease, Host-Vector Relationship, Ecological Parameters, Technology and Spread of Disease, Diffusion of Diseases in Pakistan, History and Role of WHO, Top Ranking Diseases: Diarrhea, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, Disease Cartography, Spatial Incidence, Prevalence and Diffusion, Health-Care Delivery in Pakistan
Suggested Readings:
Koch, T. (2005) “Cartographies of Diseases: Maps, Mapping and Medicine”, Esri Press: Redlands.
Meade, S. Melinda and Earickson, J. Robert. (2000) “Medical Geography”, The Guilford Press: New York.
Naish, Michael and Warn, Sue. (1993) “The Geography of Health”, Longman: England.
Akhtar, Rais. (1991) “Environment and Health: Themes in Medical Geography”, Ashish Publication House: New Delhi.
Cliff, D. Andrew and Haggett, Peter. (1988) “Atlas of Disease Distribution”, Blackwell Publisher: UK
Learmonth, Andrew. (1988) “Disease Ecology”, Blackwell Publication: UK.
Dubos, Rene. (1968) “Man, Medicine, and Environment”, Frederick A. Praeger publisher: New York.
Gurtis, Sarah. (2004) “Health and Inequality: Geographical Perspective”, Sage: New York.

Urban Geography


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GEOG: 701 Urban Geography


Course Contents:
Origin and Growth of Cities, The Global context of urbanization and Urban Change, Urban theories, Urban Structure and Land Use in the Western Cities and Non Western Cities, Urban planning and Policy, Urban Population, Urban land value, Urban Transportation, Residential mobility and neighborhood change, Housing problems and Housing Policy, Urban retailing, Urban Environmental problems, Urban Governance and Administration, Urban political conflicts, urban social problems. Practical application of the subject on urban areas.
Suggested Readings
Hall, T. (2006) “Urban Geography”, 3rd Edition, Routiledge: New York.
Fellmann, D. Ferome, Gatis, and A. Gatis, J. (2005) “Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities”, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Dave H. Kaplan , James O. Wheeler and Holloway, Steven. (2004) “Urban Geography”, John Wiley & Sons: New York
Kaplan, Wheeler O.J. and Holloway, S. (2003) “Urban Geography”, John willey: New York.
Hartshorne A. T. and Alexander W. J. (1988) “Economic Geography”, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
David, Clark. (1982) “Urban Geography”, Croom Helem: London
Cartar, Harold. (1981) “The Study of Urban Geography”, Edward Arnold: London
Ray M. (1979) “Urban Geography”, John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 702 Urban Land Use Planning


Course Contents:
Internal Structure of Urban Areas, Major Urban Land use models ( North American, European, Latin American, South East Asian and South Asian), Urban Residential Land use pattern and Planning, Commercial Land use Pattern and planning, Industrial Land use and Planning, Urban Recreation and Planning, Zonning Laws and Urban land use regulations, Land use Control and Government Policies. Practical application of the subject on urban areas.
Suggested Readings:
Herbert, T. D. and Thomas, J. C. (2005) “Cities in space: City as Place”, 3rd Edition, David Fulton Publishers: London.
Freire, M. and Belinda, Y. P. K. (2004) “Enhancing Urban Management in East Asia: Urban and Regional Planning and Development”, Ashgate: Burlington
Hall, P. (2002) “Urban and Regional Planning”, 4th Edition, Routledge: London.
Laurini, R. (2001) “Information Systems for Urban Planning”, CRC: London.
Davies, K. W. and Herbert, D.T. (1993) “Communities with in Cities: An Urban Social Geography”, Bellhaven Press: New York.
Herbert, D. and Thomas, J. C. (1982) “Urban Geography”, John Wiley: New York.
Northam, M. R. (1975) “Urban Geography”, John Wiley: New York.
Ray M. (1979) “Urban Geography”, John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 703 Urban Planning and Development


Course Contents:
Urban Policy and Planning, History of Urban and regional Planning, Theories of urban and Regional Planning, Planning policies of American and European cities, Components of Urban Planning, Housing, Amenities, Transportation etc. Urban Development Plans. Development of Master Plans of major cities of Pakistan, Practical aspects of Developing Urban and Regional Plans, Studies related to Master Plans of major cities of Pakistan like Karachi, Lahore, Hyderabad, Peshawar
Suggested Readings:
Healey, Patsy. (2006) “Collaborative Planning, Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies”, MacMillian: New York.
Hall. (2000) “Cities of Tomorrow”, Blackwell, London.
Harpar, (2004) “Policies of Urban and Regional Planning”, McgrawHill, NewYork.
Healey, Patsy. (2006) “Collaborative Planning, Shaping Places in Fragmented Societies”, MacMillan: New York.
Altrack, U. Guntner S. Sandre, Hunning and Peters, D. (2006) “Spatial Planning and Urban Development in the New EU Member States”, from adjustment to rejuvenation Ash Gate Pub. Ltd.: New York.
Richard, T. and Gates, Le. (2005) “Thinking Globally, Acting Regionally, GIS and Data Visualization for social science and public policy research”, ESRI: Washington.
Stephen, M. Wheeler. (2004) “Planning for sustainability”, Towards more live able and ecological communities, Tayler & Franccs Publication: New York.
Harvey, W. Armstrong. (2000) “Regional Economics and Policy”, Blackwell Publication: London.
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GEOG: 704 Geography of Retailing


Course Contents:
Urban Retail Structure, The Changing Structure of Urban Retailing, The growth of Suburban Urban Shopping Centers in USA, U.K. etc. Development of Shopping Malls, Retail Structure in non-Western cities, Consumers shopping behaviour, Retail Structure of Pakistani Cities. Practical application of the subject on urban areas.
Suggested Readings:
Hall,T. (2006) “Urban Geography”, 3rd edition, Routledge, New York
Yeates M. (2004) “The North American City”, Longman, London.
Roult, H, (2005) “Geography of Retailing”, Harper, U.K.
Berry, B.J.L. (1967) “Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution”, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall,.
Berry, B.J.L., PARR, John B., Epstein, B.J., Gosh, A., and Smith R.H.T. (1988) “Market Centers and Retail Location: Theory and Application”, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall,
Brown, Stephen. (1989) "Retail Location Theory: The Legacy of Harold Hotelling," Journal of Retailing 65(4), Winter, pp.450-70.
Brown, Stephen. (1987) “Institutional Change in Retailing”, Progress in Human Geography 11(2), June, pp. 181-206.
Claus, R.James, and Walter G. Hardwick. (1972) “The Mobile Consumer: Automobile-Oriented Retailing and Site Selection”, Collin-MacMillan,.
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GEOG: 705 Geography of Urban Transportation


Course Contents:
Intra-urban Transportation, Intra Urban Activity Patterns: Movement Characteristics, Modeling Movements Related to Activity Pattern, Urban Spatial Structure, the Journey to Work, and Model Choice Transportation in Monocentric and Polycentric Urban Structures, Rapid Transit Approaches to Metropolitian Spatial Restructuring: Experience in the United States with New Rapid Transit Systems Subsidizing Public and Private Transport. Practical application of the subject on urban areas.
Suggested Readings:
Maurice, M. (2005) “Urban Transportation”, Iwro, U.K.
Hall,T. (2006) “Urban Geography”, 3rd edition, Routledge, New York
Yeates M. (2004) “The North American City”, Longman, London.
Hall, T. (2006) “Urban Geography”, 3rd Edition, Routledge: New York.
Fellmann, D. F. Gatis, and A. Gatis, J. (2005) “Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities”, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Dave, H. K ., James, W. O. and Holloway, S. (2004) “Urban Geography”, John Wiley: New York. Kaplan, Wheeler, O.J. and Holloway, S. (2003) Urban Geography, John Wiley: New York.
Hartshorne, A. T. and Alexander, W. J. (1988) “Economic Geography”, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
David, Clark. (1982) “Urban Geography”, Croom Helem: London.
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GEOG: 706 Urban Ecology


Course Contents:
Urban Environment, Urban Environmental Hazards, Urban Pollution, Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Noise Pollution, Solid Waste Management, Urban heat Island, Green Areas Deterioration. Study of selected areas with special reference to environmental problems.
Suggested Readings:
Freedman,B.(1998) “Environmental Science: A Canadian perspective”, Scarborough, Prentice Hall: Canada.
Ronald F. (2005) “Urban Ecology”, Prentice Hall, London.
Maurice, M. (2005) “Urban Transportation”, IWRO, U.K.
Hall,T. (2006) “Urban Geography”, 3rd edition, Routledge, New York
Yeates M. (2004) “The North American City”, Longman, London. Hall, T. 2006. Urban Geography, 3rd Edition, Routledge: New York.
Fellmann, D. F. Gatis, and A. Gatis, J. (2005) “Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities”, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Murphy, Raymond. (1966) “The American city: An urban Geography”, McGrow Hill: New York.
Mayar, H. and Kohn. (1959) “Readings in urban geography”, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
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GEOG: 707 Urban Geography of Pakistan


Course Contents:
Urban Growth in Pakistan, Internal Structure of the Cities of Pakistan Urbanization in Pakistan, Land use models for Pakistani Cities, Land Value Distribution in Pakistani Cities, Intra City Population, Urban retailing, Urban Housing, Urban Transportation, Urban population, urban mobility, , urban population density models, retail structure, urban land value, Urban Problems. Urban Administration, Urban fringe. Application of urban theories on major cities of Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Maurice, M.(2005). Urban Transportation, Iwro, U.K.
Hall,T.(2006). Urban Geography, 3rd edition, Routledge, New York
Yeates M. 2004, The North American City, Longman, London.
Khan, F.K. (2003), “ Geography of Pakistan”, Oxford University Press, Pakistan.
Kaplan, Wheeler O.J. and Holloway, S. 2003. Urban Geography, John willey: New York.
Murphy, Raymond. 1966. The American city: An urban geography, McGrow Hill: New York.
Fellmann, D. F. Gatis, and A. Gatis, J. (2005) “Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities”, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Mayar, H. and Kohn. (1959) “Readings in urban geography”, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
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GEOG: 708 Central Place System


Course Contents:
Central Place theories, Application of Central Place theories on Urban System, urban hierarchies, Urban Market Centers, Central Place Studies on Western and Non-Western Cities. Application of Central Place theory on major cities of Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Fellmann, D. Ferome, Gatis, A. Gatis, J. (2005) “Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities”, 8th Edition, McGraw Hill: New York.
Hartshorne A. T., Alexander W. J. (1988) “Economic Geography”, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
Clark David. (1982) “Urban Geography”, Croom Helem: London.
Cartar, Harold. (1981) “The Study of Urban Geography”, Edward Arnod: London
Ray M. Northern. (1979) “Urban Geography”, John Wiley: New York
Murphy, Raymond. (1966) “The American city: An urban geography”, McGrow Hill: New 29ork.
Mayar, H., Kohn. (1959) “Reading in urban geography”, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Smailes A.E. (1958) “Geography of Town”, Hutchinson University: London
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GEOG: 709 Locational Analysis


Course Contents:
Urban Locational models, Industrial Location , Retail Location, Locational Analysis for Market Centres, Urban Residential Choice and Location, Von Thunen Location model in Urban Context, Industrial Locational models, Population density gradients in cities, Land value gradients in cities, Retail location. Application of Locational theories on major cities of Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Charles, K., Hall S. (2004) “Locational Models and Theories”, Harper & Co: London.
Healey, M., Ilbery (1992) “Location and Change”, Oxford University Press.
Llyod, P., Dicken, (1990) “Location in Space: a theoretical approach”, Harper & Row, New York.
Haggett, P., Cliff, (1977) “Locational Analysis in Human Geography”, Edward Amold publishing: London.
Graff, Thomas O. (1994) “Spatial Diffusion of Walmart: Contagious and Reverse Hierachical Elements”, The Professional Geographer 46: 19-28.
Graff, Thomas O. (1998) “The Location of Walmart and Kmart Supercenter: Contrasting Corporate Strategies”, The Professional Geographer 50: 46-59.
Miller, Nancy J. and Kean, Rita C. (1997) “Factors contributing to in-shopping behavior in rural trade areas: implications for local retailers”, Journal of Small Business Management 35:2, 80-94.
Hayter R. (1997) “The dynamics of industrial location: the factory, the firm and production system”, John Wiley and Sons: New York
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GEOG: 710 Spatial Analysis


Spatial Distribution, Spatial Organization, Spatial Analysis of Settlements, Spatial Distribution of Population, Population Potential, Spatial Land value Pattern. Application of Locational theories on major cities of Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Berry. (1967) “Spatial Analysis”, Association of American Geographers
Maurice, M. (2005) “Urban Transportation”, Iwro, U.K.
Hall,T. (2006) “Urban Geography”, 3rd edition, Routledge, New York
Yeates M. (2004) “The North American City”, Longman, London.
Anselin, L. and A. Getis (1992) “Spatial statistical analysis and geographic information systems”, The Annals of regional science 26(1): 19-34.
Diniz-Filho, J.A., L.M. Bini and B.A. Hawkins. (2003) “Spatial autocorrelation and red herrings in geographical ecology”, Global Ecological and Biogeography. (12):53-64.
Fortin, M. and M. Dale. (2005) “Spatial Analysis: A guide for ecologists”, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Goodchild, M. F., L. Anselin, et al. (2000) “Toward Spatially Integrated Social Science”, International Regional Science Review 23(2): 139-159.

Cultural Geography


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GEOG: 721 SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents:
Rural and urban settlement studies, History of the Development of early settlements in America, Europe, Asia etc., theories of Settlements pattern, Hierarchy of Settlements, Settlements types, Rural Settlement forms and Patterns, Urban Morphology, Changing morphology of American, European, and non- Western Cities, Townscape analysis, The Social geography of Urban Areas, the classical models, Social Area Analysis, Urban ethnic segregation, Planning of Cities. Studies of various rural and urban settlements of Pakistan
Suggested Readings:
Chisholm, M. (1987) “Rural Settlement and Land use”, John Wiley, New York
Hudson, (1988) “Settlement Geography”, John Wiley, New York
Jones,M. (1989) “Geography of Settlement”, Longman: UK.
William, H. (2000) “Settlement Geography”, Cambridge University Press, London
Woods, M. (2005) “Rural Geography”, Sage Publication, New York,
Michael, P. (2001) “Urban Geography”, Routledge: New York.
Hugill, Peter J., Kenneth, E. F. (1994) “Re-Reading Cultural Geography”, University of Texas Press: Austin:
Duncan, James S. (1973) “Landscape Taste as a Symbol of Group Identity”, Geographical Review 63(3):334-355.
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GEOG: 722 RURAL SETTLEMENTS AND HOUSE TYPES


Course Contents:
Rural Settlement Pattern and forms, Rural Settlement types, History of the development of rural settlements in America, Europe, Africa, Asia etc. Rural Settlement patterns and types in America, Europe, Africa, Latin America and Asia. Factors affecting settlement location and development, village morphology, the morphology of metropolitan villages, the Changing socio-economic geography of rural settlements in the developed and less developed world. Rural Settlement Planning, Rural settlement planning in America, Europe and third world. Folk houses in America, Europe, Africa, South Asia and South East Asia, Structure and techniques of houses. Studies of various rural settlements and rural house structure and techniques of Construction.
Suggested Readings:
Chisholm, M, (1987) “Rural Settlement and Land use”, John Wiley, New York
Hudson, (1988) “Settlement Geography”, John Wiley, New York
Jones,M.(1989) “Geography of Settlement”, Longman: UK.
William, H. (2000) “Settlement Geography”, Cambridge University Press, London
Woods, M. (2005) “Rural Geography”, Sage Publication, New York.
Castle, E. N. (1995) “The Changing American Countryside: Rural people land places. Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas Press.
Summers, G.F. (1986) "Rural community development." Annual Review of Sociology 12:347-371.
Daniels, Thomas, J.W. Keller, M.B. Lapping. (1995) “Strategic planning for the future of small towns: The Small Town Planning Handbook”. APA Press, Chicago, Illinois.
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GEOG: 733 RURAL SETTLEMENTS OF PAKISTAN


Course Contents:
Rural Area: Definition in Pakistan, Growth and development of rural settlements of Pakistan, Morphology of rural settlements of Pakistan, Types of rural settlements of Pakistan, Rural settlements Pattern of Pakistan, Rural house types and structure in Sindh, Punjab, N.W.F.P and Balochistan. Studies of the rural settlements and house structure of Sindh, Punjab, N.W.F.P and Balochistan, Migration and Transition of Rural Space
Suggested Readings:
Chisholm, M, (1987) “Rural Settlement and Land use”, John Wiley, New York
Hudson, (1988) “Settlement Geography”, John Wiley, New York
Jones, M. (1989) “Geography of Settlement”, Longman: UK.
William, H. (2000) “Settlement Geography”, Cambridge University Press, London
Woods, M. (2005) “Rural Geography”, Sage Publication, New York,
Shortridge, B.G. (1995) “Cultural Geography”, New York
Irowan.G. (2005) “Cultural Systems of the World”, London.
Yalmbor, C. (2003) “Culture regions”, Washington.
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GEOG: 756 CULTURAL SYSTEMS OF THE WORLD


Course Contents:
Evolution of Cultural regions, Diffusion of Cultures, Cultural hearths, Core, Domain and Sphere, Cultural regions of the world, Evolution of cultural landscape, Cultural Systems of the world; Clash of Civilizations, Cultural Diffusion, Cultural Contact and transfer, Folk culture, Popular Culture, Cultural Ecological Analysis. Studies and application of cultural systems.
Suggested Readings:
Svobodova, H. (1990) “Cultural aspects of Landscape”, Washington.
Shortridge, B.G. (1995) “Cultural Geography”, New York
Irowan.G. (2005) “Cultural Systems of the World”, London.
Yalmbor, C. (2003) “Culture regions” , Washington.
Hugill, Peter J., Kenneth E. F. (1994) “Re-Reading Cultural Geography”, University of Texas Press: Austin:
Duncan, James S. (1973) “Landscape Taste as a Symbol of Group Identity”, Geographical Review 63(3):334-355.
Mitchell, Don. (1996) “Explanation in Cultural Geography” ,Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21(3): 580-582
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GEOG: 757 PRE-HISTORIC CULTURE


Course Contents:
Prehistoric Climate, Evolution of early hominids, Australopithecus, Homohabilus, Homoerectus, Homosapiens. Origin and migration of early hominids, Techniques of stone tool making, Stone implements. Prehistoric cultural phases. Paleolithic Culture: Early Paleolithic Culture, Middle Paleolithic Culture, Upper Paleolithic Culture, Mesolithic Culture, Neolithic Culture, Chalcolithic Culture, Civilization. Collection of artifacts and visit of prehistoric sites in Pakistan
Suggested Readings:
Bridget, A. (1998) “The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan”, Cambridge University Press.
Cremo, M. A. (1998) “Forbidden Archaeology”, Torchlight publishers: San Jose.
Dore, G. (2005) “The Neolithic Culture”, Frozeward publisher, London.
Froce, G. (2005) “Paleolithic Culture”, Arch and Co. Singapore.
Kenoyer, J. (2004) “Indus Valley Civilization”, Oxford University Press, Karachi.
Rose, J. (2006) “Archeology”, Rold publisher, Paris
Hugill, Peter J., Kenneth E. F. (1994) “Re-Reading Cultural Geography”, University of Texas Press: Austin:
Mitchell, D. (1996) “Explanation in Cultural Geography” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21(3): 580-582
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GEOG: 758 PRE-HISTORIC CULTURE OF PAKISTAN


Course Contents:
Prehistoric environment, Paleolithic culture in Pakistan, Early Paleolithic Culture in Pakistan, Middle Paleolithic Culture in Pakistan, Upper Paleolithic Culture in Pakistan, the Soan Valley, the Rohri hill, the Ongar, Mesolithic and Neolithic Culture in Pakistan, Indus Civilization, Early Indus Civilization, Mehargarh, Kili Gul Mohammad, Amri, Kot Diji, etc. Mature Indus Civilization, Moen Jo Daro, Harappa. Collection of artifacts and visit of prehistoric sites in Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Bridget, A. (1998) “The rise of civilization in India and Pakistan”, Cambridge University Press.
Cremo, M, A. (1998) “Forbidden Archaeology”, Torchlight publishers: San Jose.
Dore, G. (2005) “The Neolithic Culture”, Frozeward publisher, London.
Froce, G. (2005) “Paleolithic Culture”, Arch and Co. Singapore.
Kenoyer, J. (2004) “Indus Valley Civilization”, Oxford University Press, Karachi.
Rose, J, (2006) “Archeology”, Rold publisher, Paris
Khan, A. Jamil. (1993) “The Climate of Pakistan”, Rehbar Publishers: Karachi.
Duncan, J. S. (1973) “Landscape Taste as a Symbol of Group Identity”. Geographical Review 63(3):334-355.

Political Geography


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GEOG: 711 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents
Scope and Status of Political Geography, Modern political Geography, focus on political area, state as the focus of study, main approaches, development of political geography, Geography of War and Peace, political-geographic structure of a state: shape, size, location, boundaries, capitals, core areas and politioco-cultural attributes, functioning of integrative & divisive forces, measuring the functional effectiveness, geopolitical perspective of the world, heartland, Rimland: concepts and application, supra-national organizations, role of United Nations in world politics, Geography of local areas, a case study of Pakistan, boundaries, capital, the hierarchy of administrative units. Study of various attributes of selected states of the world with quantitative cartographer application.
Suggested Readings:
Agnew, J. (1997) “Political Geography: A Reader”, Arnold: London.
Agnew, J. Mitchell, K., Toal. (2002) “A Companion to Political Geography”, Blackwell: Oxford.
Grant R. and Nijman, J. (2002) “Globalization and the Margins”,Palgrave: London.
Munir, R. (1981) “Modern Political Geography”, Macmillan: London.
Painter, J. Politics. (1995) “Geography and Political Geography”, Arnold: London.
Prescott, J.R.V. (1965) “The Geography of Frontiers and Boundaries”, Hutchinson: London.
Taylor, and P.J. Flint. (2004) “Political Geography: World Economy”, Nation-State and Locality Pearson: Delhi.
Taylor, P.J. (1993) “Political Geography of the Twentieth Century”, Belhaver: London.
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GEOG: 712 ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents
The Spatial Perspective: Geographic Concepts and Processes, Political Cultures and the Territorial Dimensions of Politics, Geography of Representation: Apportionment, Distributions and Redistributions, Electoral System Engineering: Malapportionment and Gerrymandering, Geography of Voting Response Surfaces; and Theories of Voting Behavior.
Suggested Readings:
Johnston ,, R. J. (1979) “Political, Electoral, and Spatial Systems: An Essay in Political Geography (Contemporary Problems in Geography)”, Clarendon Pr.
Perepechko , AV.A. Kolossov , C. ZumBrunnen. (February 1, 2007) “Remeasuring and rethinking social cleavages in Russia: Continuity and changes in electoral geography” Elsevier.
Prescott, J.R.V. (1985) “The Geography of Voting Behaviour”, Hutchinson: London.
Held, D. (1995) “Democracy and Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance”, Stanford University Press: Stanford.
Guinier, L. (1994) “The Tyranny of the Majority”, Free Press: New York.
Gronfinan, B. Handlley, L. Niemi R. (1992) “Minority Representation and the Quest for voting Equality”, Cambridge University Press: New York.
Taylor, P.J. Johnston, R.J. (1979) “Geography of Elections”, Penguin: London.
Taylor, and P.J. Flint. (2004) “Political Geography: World Economy”, Nation-State and Locality Pearson: Delhi.
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GEOG: 713 GEOGRAPHY OF ADMINISTRATION


Course Contents
Geography of administration, the logic of administrative areas, the concept of territoriality, administration and development images of public administration a structural functional approach, the hierarchy of administrative system, the spatial structure of administrative areas, analysis of their shape, size and functional effectiveness, administrative systems of unitary and federal states, measures of functional effectiveness of an administrative area, administrative area reform, the effect of administrative area on economic and political life of a nation, a case study of Pakistan: evolution of administrative units in Pakistan, the hierarchy of administrative units in Pakistan, shifting of federal capital from Karachi to Islamabad, provincial capitals. Preparation of assignment on a selected political area administrative unit of Pakistan or any part of the world.
Suggested Readings
Agnew, J. (1997) “Political Geography: A Reader”, Arnold: London.
Agnew, J. Mitchell, K., Toal. (2002) “A Companion to Political Geography”, Blackwell: Oxford.
Bryan, H. Massam. (1972) “Spatial Structure of Administrative Systems”, Resource Paper No. 12, Association of American Geographers: Washington D.C.
Edward W. Saja. (1971) “The Political Organization of Space Resource” Paper No. 8, Association of American Geographers: Washington D.C.
Herod, A.O. Tuathail, G. and Reberts, S.M. (1998) “An Unruly World? Globalization, Governance and Geography”, Routledge: New York.
Woodhouse, D. (1997) “In Pursuit of Good Administration”, Clarendon Press. Oxford.
Zaidi, I.H. (1961) “Administrative Areas of West Pakistan: A Geographical Evaluation”, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Geography, University of Syracuse: New York.
Chapman, G. P. Aldershot, Ashgate, (2003) “The geopolitics of South Asia. From early empires to the nuclear age.
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GEOG: 714 POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF THE WORLD


Course Contents
Political pattern of the world, Territory and politics, Sovereignty and control, states and nationstates, Politics of language, religion and ethnic diversity, Unitary, Federal and regional states, New World order, Problems of boundaries and resources.
Suggested Readings
Agnew, J. 1997. Political Geography: A Reader, Arnold: London.
Agnew, J. Mitchell, K., and Toal. 2002. A Companion to Political Geography, Blackwell: Oxford.
Grant R. and Nijman, J. 2002. Globalization and the Margins. Palgrave: London.
Munir, R. 1981. Modern Political Geography: Macmillan: London.
Painter, J. Politics. 1995. Geography and Political Geography, Arnold: London.
Raynolds, D. and Knight, D. 1989. Political Geography, Geography in America: Merrill, Columbus 582 – 618
Taylor, and P.J. Flint. 2004. Political Geography: World Economy, Nation-State and Locality Pearson: Delhi.
Taylor, P.J. 1993. Political Geography of the Twentieth Century, Belhaver: London.
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GEOG: 715 TERRITORIAL DISPUTES AND CONFLICT


Course Contents
Introduction: Territoriality, Identity, Conflict over Territory, The Size of States:, Norms, Focal Points, Nations and States, Identity Politics, Nationalism, Globalization, Cultural Conflict: Religion and the State, Cultural Conflict – Ethnicity, Race, Gender, Kashmir: War in Paradise, Warriors and Brothers, China vs. India, Africa, Colonial Legacies, Zimbabwe
Suggested Readings
Agnew, John. (1994) “The territorial trap: The geographical assumptions of international relations theory”, Review of International Political Economy 1 (1) 53{80.
Huth, P. (2000) "Territory: Why Are Territorial Disputes between States a Central Cause of International Conflict?"
Spykman, Nicholas J., and Rollins, Abbie A. (August 1939) “Geographic Objectives in Foreign Policy, I." The American Political Science Review Vol. 33, No. 3 pp. 391-410.
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GEOG: 719 WATER RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT


Course Contents
Concepts, Principles and Tools: Introduction: Socio-economic and Environmental Consideration, Institutional Arrangement, Management Instruments, Participatory Approach and Decentralization. Status of the Water Resources: Surface Water and Groundwater Supplies, Catchment Management, Climate and Hydrological Changes, Water Pollution and Health. Management of the Water Resources: Water Demand Forecasting and Management, Water Use Efficiency, Water Conservation, Treatment and Reuse, Risk Management, International Waters. Mathematical Models: River Basin Management and Modeling, Analysis of the Behavior of the Physical System, Development of Scenarios and Impact Assessment, Resource Allocation and Management. Economics of Water Resources: Economic Analysis of Water Projects, The Value of Water, Pricing of Water Services and Cost Recovery, Economic Instruments. Policies, Goals and Strategies: Water Policy and National Goals, Water and Public Administration Policies, Water Law, Water Rights and Ownership, Public Awareness and Education, National Strategies for WRM. Institutional Arrangement: Water Related Legislation and Regulation, Public Sector Institutions, Inter-Agency Coordination, Empowerment and Participation of Stakeholders, Data and Information System.
Suggested Readings
Brouwer, R. Pearce, D. (2007) “Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Resources Management”, Edward Elgar Pub: New York.
Giupponi, C. Karssenberg, D. Jakeman, A. Hare P.M. (2006) “Sustainable Management of Water Resources: An Integrated Approach, Series on Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development”, Edward Elgar Publishing: New York.
Grigg, S. N. (1996) “Water Resources Management: Principles, Regulations, and Cases”, 1st edition, McGraw-Hill Professional: London.
Jain, K. S. Singh, P. V. (2003) “Water Resources Systems Planning and Management”, 1st Edition, Elsevier Science: New York.
Lackey, R.T. (2005) “Economic growth and salmon recovery: an irreconcilable conflict?”, Fisheries 30(3): 30-32.
Mays. W. L. (2004) “Water Resource Systems Management Tools”, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill: New York.
McRae, D. M. and Pearse, P. H. (2004) “Treaties and transition: towards a sustainable fishery on Canada's Pacific Coast”, Federal-Provincial Joint Task Group Report: 58pp.
Taylor, P.J. 1993. Political Geography of the Twentieth Century, Belhaver: London.
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GEOG: 974 GEOGRAPHY OF CRIMES


Course Contents
Introduction to Crime: Series of crimes written on flash cards, Crime: environmental issue, Mapping Crime: Uses 'Mapping Crime' extract from Chris Durbin series. Look at the crimes which may have occurred locally, Crime linked to particular locations, Example from local area / Karachi – mapping, Preventing crime through design.
Suggested Readings:
Gesa , Helms . (May 30, 2008) “Towards Safe City Centers, Economic Restructuring and Crime Control in Old Industrial Cities”, Ashgate Pub Co.
Michael D. Maltz , A. C. Gordon, Warren Friedman, (January 1991) “Mapping Crime in Its Community Setting: Event Geography Analysis”, Springer-Verlag.
Simon , J . (June 2003) “Capital Offenses: Geographies of Class and Crime in Victorian London (Victorian Literature and Culture Series)”, University of Virginia Press, Virginia.
Ainsworth, P. B. (2001) “Offender Profiling and Crime Analysis”, Geographic Profiling, CRC Press.
Shaw, C. R., McKay, H. D. (1972) “Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas”, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
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GEOG: 796 ADMINISTRATIVE GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN


Course Contents
Introduction: The logic of Administrative areas, territoriality and organization, the spatial structure of administrative areas. Evolution of administrative units of Pakistan 1947-2008. The hierarchy of administrative units in Pakistan: provinces, Division, Districts, Tehsil, Taluka. The hierarchy of administrative units in Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan, One unit of FATA and FANA. Shifting of federal capital from Karachi to Islamabad. Focus on federally administrative capitals Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta. Study of local government in Pakistan.
Suggested Readings
Mehmood, K. (2004) “Changes in the spatial structure of Administrative Areas of Pakistan; A Geographical Evaluation” (Unpublished PhD, Desertion Department of Geography, University of Karachi, Karachi.
Zaidi, I.H., (1960) “Administrative areas of west Pakistan; A Geographical Evaluation”. (unpublished PhD, Desertion. University of Syracuse, Syracuse.
A. K. philbrick, (1957) “Principles of areal Functional organization in regional human geography”, EION. Geogr., 53, 299-336.
Painter, J. P. (1995) “Geography and Political Geography”, Arnold: London.
Raynolds, D. and Knight, D. (1989) “Political Geography, Geography in America”, Merrill, Columbus 582 – 618
Taylor, P.J. Flint, (2004) “Political Geography: World Economy, Nation-State and Locality”, Pearson: Delhi.
Taylor, P.J. (1993) “Political Geography of the Twentieth Century”, Belhaver: London.
Agnew, J. (1997) “Political Geography: A Reader", Arnold: London.
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GEOG: 797 POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN


Course Contents
Emergence of Pakistan as a nation-state on the map of the world, Politico-geographic structure of Pakistan, external structural attributes, strategic location and boundaries of Pakistan, Internal structural attributes, shifting of capital, culture- ethnic attributes, significance of federalism, role of Pakistan in geopolitics of south Asia with special reference to India-Pakistan relations, Political Geography of administrative areas of Pakistan.
Suggested Readings
Taylor, P.J. Flint. (2004) “Political Geography: World Economy, Nation-State and Locality”, Pearson: Delhi.
Agnew, J. Mitchell, K., Toal. (2002) “A Companion to Political Geography”, Blackwell: Oxford.
Grant R. Nijman, J. (2002) “Globalization and the Margins”, Palgrave: London.
Agnew, J. (1997) “Political Geography: A Reader”, Arnold: London.
Painter, J. Politics. (1995) “Geography and Political Geography”, Arnold: London.
Taylor, P.J. (1993) Political Geography of the Twentieth Century, Belhaver: London.
Raynolds, D., Knight, D. (1989) “Political Geography”, Geography in America: Merril, Columbus 582 – 618
Yakas, O. (2001) “Islamabad: The Birth of a Capital”, Oxford University Press: USA.
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GEOG: 798 GEOPOLITICS IN SOUTH ASIA


Course Contents
Conflicts between India and Pakistan, the process of conflict resolution in South Asia, the Tashkent agreement, the Shimla pact, the impact of afghan crises and its impact on Pakistan, Pakistan role in the war against terror, regional cooperation: SAARC, crises management, confidence building and reconciliation between India and Pakistan.
Suggested Reading:
Willets, P. (1978). The Non – Aligned Movement, Francis Pinter: London.
Taylor, P.J. (1998). Political Geography, Longman: New York.
Murro, D. (1990) “A world record of major conflict areas”, Arnold: London.
Waslekan, S. (1996) “A handbook of conflict Resolution in south Asia”, Konark publishers: New Dehli.
Allchin, F.R. (1995) “The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia”, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Agnew, J. Mitchell, K., Toal. (2002) “A Companion to Political Geography”, Blackwell: Oxford.
Grant R. Nijman, J. (2002) “Globalization and the Margins”, Palgrave: London.
Yakas, O. (2001) “Islamabad: The Birth of a Capital”, Oxford University Press: USA.

Economic Geography


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GEOG: 744 RURAL GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents
Definition of Rural and Understanding the Rural, Rural Restructuring and Globalization, Rural Development Policy and Quality of Life, Toward Sustainable Communities, Determining Community Goals and Objectives, Legal Background of Nonmetropolitan Planning, History of Federal Rural Development Programs and Rural Development Act, Planning Laws and Regulations of Rural Land, Community and Economic Development Plan, Political Economy of Rural Development, Community Development Acts and Programs, Small Town Economic Development, Community Profile and Comprehensive Plan, Population Estimates and Land use, Nonmetropolitan Planning: The Implementation process, The Rural Planners and Planning Commissions, The Role of Regional Planning Organizations, Planning Implementation Techniques: Zoning, Subdivision Regulations, Capital Improvements Program and Public Finance, Design and Appearance of Small Town, Environmental Planning and Public Facilities: Rural Land Use Planning, Water Resources and Waste Water Planning, Solid Waste Management.
Suggested Readings:
Lapping, Mark B., Thomas L. Daniels, John W. K. (1995) “The Small Town Planning Handbook”, Planners Press, Chicago.
Woods, M. ( 2005) “Rural Geography”, Sage Publications. London.
Roseland, M. (1998) “Toward Sustainable Communities: Resources for Citizens and their Governments”, New Society Publisher, Stony Creek, CT.
Stephen, M. W. (2004) “Planning for sustainability; Towards more live able and ecological communities”, Tayler & Franccs Publication: New York.
Harvey, W. A. (2000) “Regional Economics and Policy”, Blackwell Publication: London.
Conyers, Diana, Hills, P. (1991) “An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World”, John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 755 RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE


Course Contents
Definition of Rural and Understanding the Rural, Rural Restructuring and Globalization, Rural Development Policy and Quality of Life, Toward Sustainable Communities, Determining Community Goals and Objectives, Legal Background of Nonmetropolitan Planning, History of Federal Rural Development Programs and Rural Development Act, Planning Laws and Regulations of Rural Land, Community and Economic Development Plan, Political Economy of Rural Development, Community Development Acts and Programs, Small Town Economic Development, Community Profile and Comprehensive Plan, Population Estimates and Land use, Nonmetropolitan Planning: The Implementation process, The Rural Planners and Planning Commissions, The Role of Regional Planning Organizations, Planning Implementation Techniques: Zoning, Subdivision Regulations, Capital Improvements Program and Public Finance, Design and Appearance of Small Town, Environmental Planning and Public Facilities: Rural Land Use Planning, Water Resources and Waste Water Planning, Solid Waste Management.
Suggested Readings
Lapping, Mark B., Thomas L. Daniels, John, W. K, (1995) “The Small Town Planning Handbook”, Planners Press, Chicago.
Woods, Michael. (2005) “Rural Geography”, Sage Publications. London.
Roseland, Mark. (1998) “Toward Sustainable Communities: Resources for Citizens and their Governments”, New Society Publisher, Stony Creek, CT.
Stephen, M. Wheeler. (2004) “Planning for sustainability, Towards more live able and ecological communities”, Tayler & Franccs Publication: New York.
Harvey, W. Armstrong. (2000) “Regional Economics and Policy”, Blackwell Publication: London.
Conyers, Diana, Hills, P. (1991) “An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World”, John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 759 TRANSPORTATION GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents
Introduction: the characteristics of transportation, Components of the transportation system Goals and objectives of transportation planning, History of transportation, The economics of transportation, Transportation and economic development, Transportation safety, Freight and intermodal transportation, Air transportation: deregulation, spatial aspects, Issues and problems in urban transportation, Public transportation, Intelligent transportation systems Transportation and the environment.
Suggested Readings:
David A. H. (2004) “Hand Book of Transport Geography & Spatial Systems”, Elsevier: London.
Hoyle, B., Richard, K. (2004) “Modern transport geography”, John Wiley: New York.
Gary, L, Gaile, Cort, J. W.(Eds) (2003) “Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century”, Oxford University Press: London.
Miller, H.J., Shaw, S.A. (2001) “Geographic Information Systems for Transportation: Principles & Applications”, Oxford University Press: London.
Rodney, T., Brian, T. (1995) “Transport System, Policy & Planning”, Longman: London.
Knapp, B. (1992) “Systematic Geography”, Collins Educational: London.
Lolite, H.P., Senior, M.L. (1989) “Transport Geography”, Longman: London.
James E. P., Jones, F. C. (Eds). (1954) “American Geography, Inventory & Prospects”, Syracruse University Press: New York.
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GEOG: 766 ECONOMIC SYSTEMS OF THE WORLD


Course Contents
Evaluation of economic systems: classification of economic systems, historical development criteria for evaluation of an economic system. Basic differences between economic system, Capitalism: definition, historical development, pre-requisites of capitalism, competitive and monopoly capitalism. Economic institutions of capitalism. Distinction between private and public property and production, price system, profit maximization / cost minimization and competition Economic decision making under capitalism. Evaluation of capitalism in USA and Europe capitalism, market system and environmental problems. Communism and socialism: meaning and nature, communism and power to the centre. Concepts of ownership and production, various types of communism, Marxism, socialism, economic planning and decision making. Achievements and failures, communism / socialism in ussr, china and other parts of the world, Modern trend and its failure, convergence of capitalism and socialism. Present status of socialism. Economic system of islam: distinctive features, basic economic values of islam. Economic institutions and their role, property rights, production and distribution system. The concept of welfare state. Comparative analysis: islamic system, capitalism and communism. Economic system in pakistan: brief economic history of pakistan. The mixed economy, nationalization and its impacts. Operations under mixed economy, privatization and liberalization in the 1990’s and 2000’s. Islamisation in pakistan: process and problem, achievements and experience. Islamic economics as global system of equity and welfare.
Suggested Readings:
Rosefiel, S. (2002). Comparative Economic Systems: Culture, Wealth, an Power in the 21st Century, Wiley-BlackWell: Boston.
Pal, D. I. (2001). Pakistan, Islam, an Economics: Failure of Modernity, Oxford University Press: USA.
Jeetun, A. (1978). The Feeral Tax System in Pakistan: An overview, Applied Economics Research Centre, University of Karachi: Karachi.
Harvey, W. Armstrong. (2000) “Regional Economics and Policy”, Blackwell Publication: London.
Conyers, Diana, Hills, P. (1991) “An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World”, John Wiley: New York.
Harvey, W. A. (2000) “Regional Economics and Policy”, Blackwell Publication: London.
Conyers, Diana, Hills, P. (1991) “An Introduction to Development Planning in the Third World”, John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 767 MANUFACTURING GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents
Approaches to location dynamics, From Industrial Revolution to Green Paradigm, The product cycle model, Government policies and location, The environment as a location factor, Business Organization and Location, Firms in the modern economy: From, The internationalization process, Deindustrialization Causes and consequences of deindustrialization, The Nature of Production Systems, Theory of Industrial Districts Tutorial: Industrial district case studies, The anatomy of Toyota Town, Industrial district case studies, Structure of branch plant economies: the Canadian model.
Suggested Readings
Hartshorne, A. Truman, Alexander, J.W. (1996) “Economic Geography”, Prentice-Hall: New York.
Altaf, Z. (1988) “Entrepreneurship in the third world and uncertainty in industry in Pakistan”, Croom Helm: London.
Keith, Champman, Walker, David. (1987) “Industrial Location; Principles and policies, Basil” Blackwell: Oxford University press: New York.
Hewing, J.D. (1977) “Regional industrial Analysis and Development”, Methuen and Co: London.
Smith, D. M. (1971) “Industrial Location: An Economic Geographical analysis”, John Wiley: New York.
Alexanderson, Gunnar. (1967) “Geography of Manufacturing”, Prentice-Hall: New York.
Miller, E. Willard. (1962) “Geography of Manufacturing”, Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs.
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GEOG: 771 AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN


Course Contents
Introduction, Factors responsible for the cultivation of crops: Physical, Cultural, Economic etc. Croping Seasons: Rabi and Kharif. Types of Agriculture practice in Pakistan, Crop Diseases: water logging and salinity. Irrigation Systems: Importance, problems etc., Agro based Industries. Future prospects of Agriculture in Pakistan.
Suggested Readings
Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S. 2004. Agricultural Geography, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Dehli.
Farooqee, R. 1999. Strategic Reforms for Agricultural Growth in Pakistan, The World Bank: Washington D.C.
Grigg, B. D, March. 1995. An Introduction to Agricultural Geography, 2nd edition, Routledge: London.
James, P.E. 1954. American Geography: Inventory and Prospects, Syracuse University Press: New York.
Grigg, David. 1995. Introduction to agricultural geography, 2nd Edition, Routledge: London.
Hans. 1983. Farming Systems in the Tropics, Ruthenberg Publisher, Oxford University Press: USA.
Davidson P.A. Ahmad, M. 2003. Privitization and the Crisis of Agricultural Extension: The Case of Pakistan, Ashgate Publishing: London.
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GEOG: 772 CROPS COMBINATION AND CROPPING REGION


Course Contents
The Nature of Tropical Farming Systems, Farming systems concepts, Classification of Farming Systems , The Biophysical Context of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Agriculture, Climate, Soils, Irrigated Crops and Cropping Systems, Irrigation systems, Irrigated crops, Maize, cotton, sugar cane, irrigated rice, Estate Crops, Coffee, cocoa, bananas, plantains, Arid, Semi-arid and Mediterranean Cropping Systems, Rainfed: Barley, millet, sorghum, chickpeas and lentils, Tree crops: date palm, figs, olives, apricot, pistachio, etc., Tropical pastures and forages: animal production systems, Improving tropical and sub-tropical farming systems
Suggested Readings:
Norman, M.J.T. et al. (1995) “The Ecology of Tropical Food Crops”, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Second Edition). [SB 176.T76 N67 1995 On reserve in the Library]
Pearson, C.J. et al (1992) “Field Crop Ecosystems”, Amsterdam: Elsevier. [QK 901.F53 On reserve in the Library]
Rehm, S., G. Espig. (1991) “The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics and Subtropics”, Wikersheim: Verlag Josef Marlag.
Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S. 2004. Agricultural Geography, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Dehli.
Farooqee, R. 1999. Strategic Reforms for Agricultural Growth in Pakistan, The World Bank: Washington D.C.
Grigg, B. D, March. 1995. An Introduction to Agricultural Geography, 2nd edition, Routledge: London.
Davidson P.A. Ahmad, M. 2003. Privitization and the Crisis of Agricultural Extension: The Case of Pakistan, Ashgate Publishing: London.

Tourism and Recreation


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GEOG: 741 GEOGRAPHY OF TOURISM & RECREATION


Course Contents
The relationship between tourism and recreation, the development of Geography of Tourism and Recreation, the Status of Geography of Tourism & Recreation, the Business of Tourism and Recreation, types of Tourism, the Demand for Recreation and Tourism, the Supply of Recreation and Tourism, tourism Management, hospitality Tourism and Recreation, customer Service in Tourism and Recreation, communication Skills in Tourism and Recreation, WTO Global Code of Ethics, The Impacts of Tourism & Recreation, Mass Industrial Tourism, Urban Recreation and Tourism, Rural Recreation and Tourism, Recreation and Tourism in Pleasure Periphery, Wilderness and National Parks, The Future, Tourism & Recreation in Pakistan. Case studies of various tourist/recreational sites in Karachi/Sindh/Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Hall, C. M. & Page, S.T. (1999), The Geography of Tourism & Recreation: Environment, Place & Space. New York, Routledge.
Hall, C.M. & Lew, A.A. Eds (1998) Sustainable Tourism – A Geographical Perspective. London Addison Wesley, Longman.
Hudman, L.E. & Jackson, R.E. (1992) The Geography of Travel & Tourism. Albany, New York, Delmar Publishers.
Oppermann, M. (1997) Geography and Tourism Marketing. Albany, New York, Haworth Press.
Refferty, M.D. (1993) A Geography of World Tourism. Englewood. Cliffs N. Prentice Hall.
Ringer, G. (Ed) (1998) Destinations: Cultural Landscapes of Tourism, London, Routledge.
Seasten, A.Y. Jenkins CL, Wood RC, Dieke PVC, Bennett, MM. Maclellan, LR, & Smith R (1994) Tourism: The State of the Arts, New York Wiley.
Shaw, G. & Williams, A.M. (1994), Critical Issues in Tourism - A Geographical Perspective. Cambridge: Blackwell.
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GEOG: 742 THE GEOGRAPHY OF SPORTS


Course Contents
Introduction: Significance of sports, the geographical bases of modern sport, the growth & globalization of sports, folk origins, sports & innovation diffusion, sport diffusion as colonialism, regional dimensions, regions of human vigour, sports for all or few, sports & location, sports & welfare Geography, sites, sights and the senses in sports, imaginative geographies of sport, case studies of sports facilities and sports development in Karachi/Sindh/Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Bale, J.R. (2003) Sports Geography. Routledge, London
Bale, J.R. (1994) The Landscapes of Sport. Leicester University Press.
Bale, J.R. (1994) Sports, Space and the City. Routledge, London.
Loudon. E. & Spon, F.N. (1991) The Brown Drain: Foreign Student Athletes in American Universities. Leicester University Press.
Raits, K.B. (1995) The Theater of Sport. Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press.
Rumney, T.A. (1995) Bibliography of Sports Geography. Oxford University Press.
Maguire, J. (1999) Global Sport. Routledge, London.
Miller, T, Lawrence, G. McKay, J. & Rowe, D. (2001) Globalisation and Sports. Routledge, London.
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GEOG: 743 GEOGRAPHY OF ECO-TOURISM


Course Contents
Concepts and variables: definition of ecotourism, adventure tourism profiling the eco tourist
Natural resources, the exploitation of the natural world, Parks the evolving role of Parks, social and ecological impacts of tourism, the economy of ecotourism Personal use value Non-use value, the marketing and management of ecotourism, ecotourism’s policy Ecotourism program planning, program design structure, program design: risk management, ecotourism development, community development, development in the form of partnership, aboriginal interest, eco-tourism a sustainable development, eco-tourism & protected areas, eco-tourism in the less developed world, eco-tourism and the rural environment, problems, Prospects & Future Planning, case studies of Eco-Tourism sites in Karachi/Sindh/Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Klindberg, A. & Hawkins, D.E. (Eds) (1995) Eco-tourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers N. Bennington. VT: The Ecotourism Society.
ARA Consultants (1994) Ecotourism, nature, adventure, culture: Alberta and British Columbia Market Demand Assessment. Vancouver, ARA Consultants.
Ceballos, A. Lascurain, H. (1996) Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas. Gland, Switzerland International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Honey, M. (1999) Ecotoruism and Sustainable Development. Washington, DC Island Press.
Langholz, J. and Broandon, K. (2001). The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism. Wallingford Oxon. CAB International Publishing
Mitchell, G.E. (1992) Ecotourism Guiding. How to start your career as an Ecotourism Guide. CABI Publishing
Wearing, S. and Neil, J. (1999) Ecotourism: Impact Potential and Possibilities. Oxford, Butterworth and Heinemann.
Weaver, D.B. (2001) Ecotourism. Milton, Queensland: John Wiley Sons.
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GEOG: 744 RURAL TOURISM


Course Contents
Rural tourism: an introduction, concept of rural tourism, the rural environment, types of rural tourism, tourist and tourist activity in rural areas, policy and planning in rural tourism, the financing of rural tourism, the marketing of rural tourism, the Green image of a tourist destination, key issues facing rural tourism enterprises, rural Tourism: Spatial Analytical Approaches, the Impact of Rural Tourism, the Economic Impact Implications of Rural Tourism Business Development, rural Tourism Policy (USA), sustainable Rural Tourism Strategies: Planning, Funding & Promotion of Farm Tourism, aboriginal Tourism, problems Prospects and Future Planning, case studies of rural tourist destinations in Karachi/Sindh/Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Ritchies, B.J.R. & Goldmen, C.R., (Eds) (2005) Travel Tourism and Hospitality Research: A Hand Book for Managers & Researchers. New York, John Wiley
Mieczkowski, Z. (1995) – Environmental Issues of Tourism & Recreation. Lanham University Press of America
Stephen, J. Page, & Getz, D. (Ed) (2001) The Business of Rural Tourism International Perspectives. International Thamson Business Press. London
Smith, V. (Ed.) (1999) The Anthropology of Tourism. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.
Richter, L. (1989) The Politics of Tourism in Asia. Honolululu, University of Hawaii Press.
Hall, C.M. and Jenkins, J. (1995) Tourism & Public Policy. London, Routledge
Hall, C.M. (1994) Tourism in the Pacific Rim: Development Impact & Planning. Melbourne Longman Cheschire.
Bale, P. (1994) Rural Tourism Strategy. Canberra, Commonwealth Department of Tourism.
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GEOG: 745 URBAN TOURISM


Course No. GEOG: 745
Course Contents
The Significance of Urban Tourism, approaches to Urban Tourism: A Geographical Analysis, the Urban Tourism Market, Urban Tourism: Behavioral Issues, tourist Perception & Conceptions of the Urban Environment, service Quality Issues in Urban Tourism, urban Recreation Planning, the financing of urban Tourism the marketing of Urban Tourism Social Dimensions, Economic Dimensions Environmental Dimensions, resource Issues, conflicts and compatibilities, case studies of urban tourism and recreational sites and facilities in urban areas of Karachi/Sindh/Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Murphy, P.E. (1997) Quality Management in Urban Tourism. Chichester, Wiley.
Hall, C.M. & Lew, A.A. (Eds) (1998) – Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective. London Addison Wesley. Longman
Stephen, H. (2002) Managing Urban Tourism. Wiley, London.
Martin, S. & Tauris, I.B. (2004) Understanding Urban Tourism: Image, Culture and Experience. Wiley, London.
Catherine, C. (2001) Doing the Town: The Rise of Urban Tourism in the United States, 1850 – 1915. University of California Press.
Bonita, K. (2006) Tourism Marketing for Cities and Towns: Using Branding and Events to Attract Tourists. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Christian, R. Gustav, V. (Eds) (2007) Urban Tourism in the Developing World: The South African Experience. Transaction Publishers.
Chris Law, (2002) Urban Tourism. Tourism, Leisure and Recreation. CENGAGE Learning Business Press.
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GEOG: 746 ADVENTURE TRAVEL & TOURISM


Course Contents
Introduction: components of an adventure travel product, characteristics of adventure travelers, reasons for adventure travel, effects of technology growth of extreme adventure events, the roles of guides, adventure travel & economic development access issues, conflicts among users, risk management issues, management of adventure tourism destination, trade association, adventure on land: uniqueness & variety in mountains, valleys & deserts, adventure on snow: soft & hard, adventure in water, white, pure & crystal adventure in space & air variety, clarity & dedication, pilgrim tourism, adventure tourism in Pakistan future trends, case studies on sites and facilities of adventure tourism in Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Relf Buckley, (2006) Adventure Tourism, Wallingford UK.
Simon Hudson, (2003) Sports & Adventure Tourism, New York, Haworth Hospitality Press
Denyse Blanchet, (2003) Adventure Tourism, Food Services & Tourism. Yuon Boulet. Qucbec.
Kimberly, More Gray, (2006) Applications for Effective Business Planning in Adventure Tourism. Oxford, London.
Adventure Tourism in Pakistan (2004) Ministry of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, GOP Ministry of Tourism.
Tejvir Singh, (2004) New Horizons in Tourism Strong Experience & Stranger Practices. Cambridge CABI Publishing.
Swarbrook, Colin, Seiqanne L, & Gill, Ponfret, (2003) Adventure Tourism – The New Frontier. Oxford Great Britain. Butter Worth, Heinemann.
Teo Albert, & Carol Paterson, (2005). Saving Paradise: The Story of Sukau Rainforest Lodge, Kote Kinabalu, Malaysia: Sabah Handicraft Centre.
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GEOG: 747 GEOGRAPHY OF SPORTS TOURISM


Course Contents
Rethinking sport tourism as an experience of physical activity, travel & place, sport & tourism: an international overview, sport & tourism: investigating the relationship, sport in the development of tourism, tourism in the development of port, the impact of sport tourism, the socio-cultural rural impact of sports tourism, the environmental impact of sports tourism, the health impact of sports tourism, present status & future prospects, administrative & policy issues, calculations & implications, sport tourism in the 21st century, case studies of sports tourism venues, festivals and events.
Suggested Readings:
Higham, J.E., (2006) Sports Tourism Destinations and Issues, Opportunities and Analysis. Oxford University Press.
Ritchie, B.W, Adair, D. (2004) Sport Tourism Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues, Clevendon, England.
Knopp, Paul de & Standevea, J (1999), Human Kinetics – Champaign Publication, Illinois.
Tejvir Singh, (2004) New Horizons in Tourism Strong Experience & Stranger Practices. Cambridge CABI Publishing.
Swarbrook, Colin, Seiqanne L, & Gill, Ponfret, (2003) Adventure Tourism – The New Frontier. Oxford Great Britain. Butter Worth, Heinemann.
Teo Albert, & Carol Paterson, (2005). Saving Paradise: The Story of Sukau Rainforest Lodge, Kote Kinabalu, Malaysia: Sabah Handicraft Centre.
Relf Buckley, (2006) Adventure Tourism, Wallingford UK.
Simon Hudson, (2003) Sports & Adventure Tourism, New York, Haworth Hospitality Press
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GEOG: 748 MOUNTAIN TRAVEL AND TOURISM


Course Contents
History of mountain travel, components of mountain travel product, characteristics of mountain travelers, reasons for mountain travel, effects of technology, growth of extreme mountain events, the roles of guides, mountain travel and economic development, access issue, conflicts among users, risk management issues, management of mountain tourism destinations, effects of tourism & development in mountain regions, tourism & development in mountain regions: moving forward into the new millennium, tourist motivations, environmental management for alpine tourism, tourism & mountain eco systems, conservation & development of mountain areas, the economic impacts of different types of tourism in upland and mountain areas, the economic impact of eco-tourism, mountain tourism & public policy, the role of the mountain communities in relation to tourism industry, strategy for future mountain tourism, sustainable tourism in mountain areas, mountain tourism in Pakistan, case studies of sites of mountain tourism in Sindh/ Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Godde, P.M. Price, M.F. & Zimmermann, (Ed.) (2000) Tourism and Development in Mountain Regions. CABI Publisher.
Ives, J.D. (Ed) (1997) Mountain of the World: A Global Priority. Parthenon Press, London & New York
Luger, K. & Inman, K. (Eds) (2001) Sustainability in Mountain Tourism: Perspectives for the Himalayan Countries. Book Faith, India, Delhi & Studenverleg, Innsbruk
Donna Garvin, (2006) Consuming Views: Arts and Tourism in the White Mountains, 1850 – 1900. Donna Garvin, NHHS.
Brenden Martin, (2007) Tourism in the Mountain: A Double-Edged Sword University Tennessee Press.
Pamela, M, Godde (Eds) (2000) Martin F. Price, Freidrich M. Zimmermann, Tourism and Development in Mountain Regions, CABI.
Thomas, A. Clark, Alison, Gill, Rudi Hartmann (Eds), Cognizant Communication Corp (2006) Mountain Resort Planning and Development in an Era of Globalization
Lloyd, E. Hudman, Richard, H. Jackson (2002) Geography of Travel & Tourism, CENGAGE Delmar Learning; 4 Edition.
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GEOG: 749 COASTAL AND MARINE TOURISM


Course Contents
The coastal zone and sustainable development, stages of the development process, the diversification and sustainable developments of coastal resorts, coastal environments for tourism, tourism-environment relationships on the coast, recreational uses of coastal areas, coastal zone management, coastal tourism & sustainable development, coastal tourism: impacts and policies, what is marine tourism? history & development of marine tourism, who are marine tourist? the supply of marine tourist opportunities, issues in marine eco-tourism, experiences with marine eco-tourism planning policy, issues for marine eco tourism, an assessment of the framework legislation & monitoring, a methodology for determining the recreational carrying, achieving conservation, community participation in marine eco tourism development, impacts of marine tourism, management approaches: the future, marine tourism in Pakistan, case studies of coastal and marine tourism sites in Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Brian Garrod, and Juke, C. Wilson, (2003) Marine Tourism Channal View Pub.
G. Carleton Ray, (2003) Coastal Marine Conservation: Science and Policy Wiley-Blackwell.
Mark Orams, Taylor & Francis, (2003) Marine Tourism, Routledge Publisher.
Bramwell, Bill, (Ed) (2004) Coastal Mass Tourism Diversification & Sustainable Development in Southern Europe. Oxford, London.
Portfolio Marine Group Environment, 1997. Coastal Tourism – A Manual for Sustainable Development – Based on a Draft paper prepared by Southern Gross. Australia.
Sheela Agarwal, Garett Shaw, (2007) Coastal Tourism Resorts: A Global Perspective Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Sheela Agarwal & Garett Shaw, (2007) Managing Coastal Tourism Resorts: A Global Perspective. Channel View publication
Sheela Agarwal & Garett Shaw, (2007) Managing Coastal Tourism Resorts – A Global Perspective – Multilingual Matters Ltd.
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GEOG: 750 HERITAGE TOURISM


Course Contents
Introduction: tourism as an industry, the global context: tourism trends, types of tourism, factors influencing performance as a tourist destination, cultural & heritage tourism issues, destination image and myths, heritage issues in Texas/U.S.A, rural/wilderness heritage, post colonialism, ethnicity and identity, the politics of heritage: power and ideology, heritage tourism planning and management: authenticity, commoditization and globalization, the rise of the culture industries, different kinds of heritage, heritage as a tourism product: environmental, cultural, protecting & preserving our heritage, significance of heritage in the tourism industry, different kinds of heritage, protecting & preserving our heritage managing cultural heritage tourism, case studies of cultural heritage tourism attractions, national heritage parks, gardens, zoo, museums, wildlife areas etc.
Suggested Readings
Sandy Lynne Holman and Lela Kowetiawi (2002) We All Have a Heritage, People Culture Co- Op.
Mifflin ,A., (2001) The American Heritage Directory: Fourth Edition (21st Century Reference) Mass Market
Donald Kagan, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner (2006) The Western Heritage: Volume II (9th Edition) Mass Market
Albert, M. Craig, William A. Graham, Doland Kagan, and Steven M Ozment (2005)The Heritage of World Civilizations: Volume One to 1700 (7th Edition) (Heritage of World Civilizations) Mass Market.
Albert, M. Craig, William A. Graham, Doland Kagan, and Steven M Ozment (2005) Heritage of World Civilizations, Combined Volume (7th Edition) Mass Market.
Graham, B. Ashworth, G.J. & Turnbridge, J.E. (2000) A Geography of Heritage: Power Culture & Economy. Oxford University Press, New York.
Mc Kercher, B. & Lu Cross, (2005) Cultural Tourism. Haworth Hospitality Press.
Timoty, D.J. & Boyd, S.W. (2004) Heritage Tourism. Prentice Hall.
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GEOG: 751 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM


Course Contents
Introduction fundamentals of tourism, economics of tourism industries, tourism and the environment, sustainable tourism development, sustainable tourism & carrying capacity, environmental impact assessment & sustainable tourism, economic valuation of environmental resources, policy formulation for sustainable tourism, sustainable tourism in mountain area, sustainable wild life tourism, perspectives on sustainable tourism, green globe: sustainable accreditation for tourism environment, tourism marketing, case studies of tourist sites in Karachi/ Sindh/Pakistan.
Suggested Readings
Bhatte, R.N. (2000) Tourism & the Environment: A Quest for Sustainability. Indus Publisher, India, New Delhi.
Hamis, R, Griffin, T. & Williams, P. (2002) Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective, Butterworth Heinemann.
Victor T, Middleton, E, Hawkins, Rebecca (1998) Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective, Butterworth & Heinemann.
Higham, J.E., (2006) “Sports Tourism Destinations and Issues, Opportunities and Analysis”. Oxford University Press.
Ritchie, B.W, Adair, D. (2004) “Sport Tourism Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues”, Clevendon, England.
Knopp, Paul de & Standevea, J (1999) “Human Kinetics” – Champaign Publication, Illinois.
Douglas Michele Turco, Roger S. Riley, and Kamilla Swart. (May 2002)” Sport Tourism “ : Fitness Information Technology
Alan Lew, C. Michael Hall, and Allan M. Williams (July 12, 2004)”A Companion to Tourism (Blackwell Companions to Geography”, : Wiley-Blackwell

Physical Geography


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GEOG: 773 APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY


Course Contents
The emergence of applied climatology & climate impact assessment, weather, climate and everyday life, development of applied climatology, application of applied climatology, climate impact assessment, statistical consideration of climate, time series analysis of climate, climate models, atmospheric resource management, climate and physical biological environments, soil, climate & soil geography, soil & green house gases, effect of climate change on soil, vegetation, climate and vegetation, climate & life, elements of climate.
Suggested Readings:
Thompson, RD. (1997) “Climatology: & Principle and Practice”, Routledge.
Barry, R.G. (2001) “Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology”, Routledge.
Oliver, J.E. (1998) “World Climatology”, Britannica.
Ierland, E. (2003) “Climatic Issues”, Edward Elgar, Publisher.
Reilly, J.M. (2002) “Agriculture: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change”, Cambridge University, Press.
Doering, O.C., (2002) “Effects of Climate Change and Variability on Agriculture Production System”, Springer.
Glantz, M.H. (1995) “Drought Follows the Plow”, Cambridge University. Press.
Thompson, D. R. Perry, A. (2005) “Applied Climatology”, 1st Edition. Taylor and Francis: London.
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GEOG: 769 AGRO-CLIMATOLOGY


Course Contents
Assessing global climatic changes impact on agriculture, issues and approaches to climate change, crop models for assessment of crop production, contributions to climate (research), climate scenario construction, validation of different crop models, crop modeling results under climate change for any region, farm level economic impacts on farm level risk, an integrated climate change assessment from S. Asia, potential global change impacts on cropping system, indirect impacts of climate change that affect agricultural production: soil erosion.
Suggested Reading:
Reilly, J.M. (2002) Agriculture: “The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change”. Cambridge University, Press.
Doering, O.C., (2002) “Effects of Climate Change and Variability on Agriculture Production System”. Springer.
Glantz, M.H., (1995) “Drought Follows the Plow”. Cambridge University. Press.
Thompson, D. R. and Perry, A. (2005). “Applied Climatology”. 1st Edition. Taylor and Francis: London.
Mavis, S. H. and Tupper, J. G. (2004). “Agro Meteorology Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture” International Book Distributing Co: Charbagh. Lucknow.
Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S. (2004). “Agricultural Geography”. 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited: New Dehli.
Barry, G. R. (2001). “Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology” 1st Edition, Routledge: New York.
Gliessman, R. Stephen, Krieger, R. and Engles E. (1998). "Agro ecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture”. CRC: London.
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GEOG: 763 COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY


Course Contents
An introduction to coastal geomorphology; inputs to coastal system; the coastal environment and sea level; coastal system actions; tides, waves; coastal system out puts; erosional coastal processes and landforms, depositional coastal processes and landforms, biological processes, coral formation; wet lands, salt marshes and mangrove swamps; human impact on coastal environments.
Suggested Readings:
Christopherson, W.R. (1997) “Geosystems; An Introduction to the Physical Geography”, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall; New Jersey.
Anthony, N. and Procopio. (2006). “An evaluation of landscapes, hydrology, and channel morphology of coastal plain drainages with different cranberry agriculture histories, ProQuest Information and Learning”. Ann Arbor.
Ritter, Kochel and Miller. (2002) “Process Geomorphology”. John Wiley: New York.
Andrew, Miller. (1999) “Varieties of Fluvial forms”. John Wiley: New York
Pirazzoli, A. P. (1996) “Sea-Level Changes: The Last 20,000 Years”. John Wiley: New York.
Sunamura, T. (1992) “Geomorphology of Rocky Coasts”. John Wiley: New York.
Nordstrom, F. K. Psuty, N. and Carter, B. (1991). “Coastal Dunes: Form and Process”. John Wiley: New York.
Thornbury, W.E. (1991) “Principles of Geomorphology”. John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 761 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF ARID LAND


Course Contents
Environmental characteristics of arid land; significance of arid land studies; types of desert; desert climates; running water in water less region; desert hydrography; fluvial erosion in arid lands, desert landscapes; basin and range province; desertification, work of wind and resultant features.
Suggested Readings:
McKnight, L.T. (1987) “Physical Geography; Landscape Appreciation”. 2nd Edition, Prentice- Hall; New jersey
Christopherson, W.R. (1997) Geosystem; “An Introduction to the Physical Geography”. 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall; New Jersey
Cooke, R.U. (1973) and A. Warren, “Geomorphology in desert”. Berkeley, Calif; University of California Press.
Doehring, D,O. (1981) “Geomorphology in Arid Region”. Landon; George Allen and Unwiin Ltd.
Gooudie, S.A and A, Watson , (1981) “Desert GeomorphologyLand” Macmillan and CO Ltd.
Christopherson, W.R. (1997) “Geosystems; An Introduction to the Physical Geography”, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall; New Jersey.
Anthony, N. and Procopio. (2006). “An evaluation of landscapes, hydrology, and channel morphology of coastal plain drainages with different cranberry agriculture histories, ProQuest Information and Learning”. Ann Arbor.
Ritter, Kochel and Miller. (2002) “Process Geomorphology”. John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 760 FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY


Course Contents
Fluvial processes and landscapes, base level of streams, drainage basin, drainage density and patterns, valleys and interfluves, erosion and deposition, time and river, stream channels, channel flow turbulence, channel change, the shaping and reshaping of valleys, valleys deepening, valley widening, valley lengthening, deposition of valleys theories of landforms development, stream rejuvenation, fluvial produced topography.
Suggested Readings:
Mcknight, L.T. 1987 Physical Geography; Landscape Appreciation, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall; New jersey
Christopherson, W.R. 1997 Geosystem; An Introduction to the Physical Geography, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall; New Jersey
Chorley, R.J. ed. 1971 Introduction to Fluvial processes; London; Methuen and CO Ltd.
Chricknay, C.H. 1974 The Work of the river, London; Macimillan and CO, Ltd.
Leopold, L.B. M.G. Wolman and J.P. Miller, 1964 Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology, San Francisco; W.H. Freeman and Co, Publisher.
Mousawa, Marie, ed.,1980 Fluvial Geomorphology, London; George Allen and Unwin.
Anthony, N. and Procopio. (2006). “An evaluation of landscapes, hydrology, and channel morphology of coastal plain drainages with different cranberry agriculture histories, ProQuest Information and Learning”. Ann Arbor.
Ritter, Kochel and Miller. (2002) “Process Geomorphology”. John Wiley: New York.
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GEOG: 764 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF PAKISTAN


Course Contents
Geomorphology of Pakistan Coast and Coastal Environment, Catastrophic Landslides and their effects on the upper Indus Streams, Karaka ram Himalaya, northern Pakistan, The Pleistocene Geomorphology of the South Eastern part of the Peshawar Vale, Quarternary landscape Evolution in the eastern Hindukush (Pakistan), The effect of mining on Geomorphology (detection of changes by using Remote sensing Techniques), Soil/Landforms relation ships surrounding the Harappa Archaeological site (Pakistan), Climate Physiography and agro–ecological zone in Pakistan, Erosion, Himalayan geodynamic, and the geomorphology of metamorphism, Differential uplifts and Drainage Basin, Dynamic on Nanga Parbat Pakistan.
Suggested Readings:
Brunsden , D. Jones, D.K.C. (1984). “The Geomorphology of high magnitude – Low frequency events in the Karakarom mountains”. Miller, K.H. (ed). The international Karakarom Project Cambridge university,.Press, Cambridge, Vol. I, pp 383-388
Hasan, Mahmood (1995), “The Pleistocene Geomorphology of the South eastern part of the Peshawar vale”, Ph.d. thesis University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
Ulrich Kamp, Jr. Klaus Haserodt and Jhon, F. Shroder, Jr. (10-January 2004) “Quaternary landscape evolution in the eastern Hindukush”. Pakistan. Vol. 57, issues 1-2, pg1-27.
Quddusi B-Kazmi and M-Afzal,(1997) “Status of Research on corals in Pakistan, Regional work shop on the conservation and Sustainable Management of coral Reefs”. Series Title; Project reports (notina series) Vol.1.
Ahmed, (1986) “A country Profile of marine environment”.Government of Pakistan,En and Urban Affairs Division Islamabad. Pakistan.78pp
Falak Nawaz ; (2004) “The effect of Mining on Geomorphology (Detection of changes by using remote sensing Techniques)”.
Peter k-Zeittler,Annes-Meltzer Dept of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lehigh University, Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism.
Cornwell,Kevin, California state university Sacrameato(2003) “Differential uplift and Drainage,Basin Dynamics on Nanga Parbat” paper #31-9. Pakistan.

Population Geography


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GEOG: 777 POPULATION GEOGRAPHY


Course Contents
Population geography: The interdisciplinary organization of population study and research, sources of population data, population distribution, composition and measurements: Index of concentration, Lorenz curve, contras of population, the threshold accessibility index, the aggregate accessibility index, economic participation measures, location quotients, Demographic change components and measures. Life tables: construction and interpretation, Population estimations: interpolation and extrapolation, regression and ratio correlation, component methods, housing unit methods, evaluating estimation. Population projection, modeling and forecasting, the role of population and in infrastructure planning, Demographic and Geographical analysis of households, GIS for population analysis.
Suggested Reading:
Plane, D. A. and Rogerson A. P. (1994) “The Geographic analysis of population with applications to planning and Business”. John wiley and Sons,Inc.
Keyfitz, N. (1985) “Applied Mathematical Demography”. 2nd edition, springer- verlag: New yark.
Khan, F. K. (2005). “Commercial Geography”. Oxford University Press: Pakistan
Rubenstein, M. James. (2004). “The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography”. Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
De Blij. H. J. (2003). “Human Geography: Culture and Society”. John Wiley and Sons: New York.
Fellmann, J. D., Getis, A. and Getis, J. (2003). “Human Geography”. McGraw Hills: New York.
Ahmad, Q. S. (2001).” Fundamentals of Human Geography”. Royal Book Company: Karachi.
Hartshorn, A. Truman and Alexander, W. John. (1999). “Economic Geography”. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey.
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GEOG: 779 MIGRATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT


Course Contents
Defining and conceptualizing migration and its types and reasons, levels and trends of migration theories of migration, impact of migration on regional development and relationship between human mobility and change in global economy, migration and poverty, mobility and health, migration and gender, migration policies before and past 9/11, Pakistan’s migration policy
Suggested Readings:
Kothari, Uma. 2002. Migration and chain Poverty, Institute of Development Policy and Management. University of Manchester: Manchester.
Martin, P. and J. Widgrn. 2002. Population Bulletin, Vol. 57, No.1. Population Reference Bureau:
Washington D.C.
Hammond, W. C. 1979. Elements of Human Geography, 2nd Edition, Bell & Hayman: London.
Davies, Suzanne and Pandit, Kavita. 1999. Migration and Restructuring in the USA: A Geographic Perspective, Rowman and Littlefield: Colorado.

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Ph.D. in Geography

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Eligibility
1. Students who have completed MS or M. Phil Degree in Geography are eligible to apply for admission.
2. Students who have completed MS.(Remote sensing and GIS) with their BS. In Geography/M.Sc. in Geography.
Courses:
Students have to complete two compulsory courses
Course I (Compulsory Course)
Geog: 801 Research Techniques in Geography
Geog: 802 Recent Trends in Geographical Research

GEOG: 801 RESEARCH TECHNIQUES IN GEOGRAPHY

Course Contents
Introduction, Scientific Approach In Geography, Advanced Research Concepts, Emerging Data Collection Techniques In Geography, Physical Measurements, Behavioral Observation And Archives, Explicit Reports: Surveys, Interviews And Tests, Experimental And Non-Experimental Research Design, Issues In Sampling, Data Visualization, Scientific Communication In Geography, Ethics In Geographical Research
Suggested Readings
Clifford, Nicholas, Valentine, G. ( 2003) “Key Methods in Geograph”, SAGE Publications, London
Cloke, Paul.( 2004) “Practicing Human Geography”, SAGE Publications, London.
Cooper, Harris M. (1998) “Synthesizing research: a guide for literature reviews”, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA
Katzer, Jeffrey. (1998) “Evaluating Information: A Guide for Users of Social Science Research”, McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA. :
Montello, D. R, Sutton, P. C. (2006) “An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography”, SAGE Publications: London
Pyrczak, Fred. (2005) “Evaluating Research in Academic Journals: A Practical Guide to Realistic Evaluation”, Pyrczak Pub., Glendale, CA
Robinson, G.M. (1998) “Methods and Techniques in Human Geography”, John Wiley: New York

GEOG: 802 RECENT TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH


Course Contents
Introduction, Evolution of Geographical Thought, Paradigm Shift in Geography, Current Philosophical Approaches, Critical Thinking, Skepticism and Intellectual Tribes, From Dichotomies to Unification, Traditions in Geography, New paradigms in Geography, Globalization and Geography, Trends of Geographical Research in Pakistan, Modern Research Agenda of Geography: Cyber geography
Suggested Readings
Cloke, Paul. (2004) “Practicing Human Geography”, SAGE Publications, London
Kitchin, Rob.( 2000) “Conducting Research in Human Geography: Theory, Methodology and Practice”, Prentice Hall: New York
Limb, Melanie, Dwyer, Claire. (2001) “Qualitative Methodologies for Geographers: Issues and Debates”, Oxford University Press: London
Montello, D. R., Sutton, P. C.( 2006) “An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography”, SAGE Publications: London
Mugerauer, Robert. (1995) “Interpreting environments : tradition, deconstruction, hermeneutics”, University of Texas Press: Austin
Parsons, A.J. (2005) “How to do your dissertation in geography and related disciplines”, Routledge: London
Robinson, G.M. (1998) “Methods and Techniques in Human Geography”, John Wiley: New York

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RS/GIS (EVENING PROGRAM)

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Eligibility
M.Sc / M.A in Geography, 4 years BS (Geography), BS (Remote Sensing and GIS) or minimum 16 years of education (KU BASR Recognized Institutes/Universities).
Other disciplines graduates will have to enroll in prerequisite courses as proposed by the Departmental Board of Studies – Department of Geography as per University of Karachi prescribed guidelines. Preferred disciplines other than above mentioned are:
Geology, Environmental Science or Engg., Civil Engg, Forestry, Agriculture, Town Planning, City & Regional Planning, Oceanography, Electrical Engg., Mechanical Engg, Zoology, Botany, Mathematics, Computer Science, Physics, Applied Physics, Public Health, Medical Science Disciplines, Education, Epidemiology, Land Management, Landscape Architecture, Archeology and Architecture.
Allocation of Seats
1. Graduates with major in Geography 20 Seats
2. Graduates with major in Allied Sciences 10 Seats
Note: In case of more than 30 applicants, an Entrance Test is recommended, which will be based on basic geography, mathematics and Computer Science Knowledge.
Duration
1. Two years spread over 4 semesters (two semesters per year)
2. 39 credit hours including thesis.

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Structure

Course Outlines

Program StructureCredit Hours Courses
Deficiency Courses 9 3
Core Courses 12 4
Elective/Specialized Courses 12 4
Research Thesis 6 -
Total 39 11

Deficiency Courses


Although curriculum of 4 years BS (Remote Sensing and GIS) has been developed by HEC but BS in RS/GIS has not been started yet in any University of Pakistan. Therefore, before starting the core courses of MS program it is recommend by Board of Studies/Faculty to teach the following background courses to all incoming graduates as deficiency courses.

Course No.Course TitleCr. Hrs.
GIS-501 Introduction to Geographical Information Systems and Spatial Analysis 3= 2+1
GIS-511 Introduction to Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing 3 = 2+1
GIS-521 Introduction to Spatial Database and Programming 3 = 2+1
These courses will be taught in first semester of the MS Program.

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Core Courses

Following are the core courses for the MS (RS/GIS) program.

Course No.Course TitleCr. Hrs.
GIS-801 Advanced Geographical Information Systems 3= 2+1
GIS-811 Advanced Remote Sensing and Image Processing 3 = 2+1
GIS-821 Advanced Spatial Database and Programming 3 = 2+1
GIS-881 Research Methods 3 = 2+1
These courses will be taught in the second semester of the MS Program.

Elective/ Specialized Courses

On the recommendation of the MS (RS & GIS) course, students can choose electives either from the following specialized fields.

Specialization Fields


1. Natural Resource Management (NRM)
2. Environmental Management (EM)
3. Urban and Regional Planning (URP)
4. Socio-economic and Infrastructure Development (SID)
5. Geomatics (GM)
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Following are the elective/optional courses with their specializations.

Course No.Course TitleCr. Hrs.Specialization
GIS-831Agriculture and Food Security 3 NRM
GIS-832 Forest Management 3 NRM, EM
GIS-833 Soil Geomorphology and Classifications 3 NRM
GIS-834 Hydrology and Water Resources 3 NRM
GIS-835 Conservation of Biodiversity 3 NRM, EM
GIS-836 Management of Energy Resources 3 NRM
GIS-837 Management of Mineral Resources 3 NRM
GIS-841 Coastal Zone Management 3 NRM, EM
GIS-842 Natural Hazards and Disaster Management 3 EM
GIS-843 Environmental Pollution 3 EM
GIS-844 Environmental Impact Assessment 3 EM
GIS-845 Environmental Decisions and Conflict Resolution 3 EM
GIS-846 Disease Ecology 3 EM
GIS-847 Climatology 3 EM
GIS-851 Land use Planning and Management 3 URP
GIS-852 District Planning and Management 3 URP
GIS-853 Urban Planning 3 URP
GIS-854 Infrastructure and Transport Planning 3 URP, SID
GIS-855 E-Governance 3 URP
GIS-856 Planning and Management of Housing 3 URP
GIS-861 Poverty Alleviation 3 SID
GIS-862 Tourism Development 3 SID
GIS-863 Education and Health Services 3 SID
GIS-864 Business and Marketing 3 SID
GIS-865 Land Information System 3 SID
GIS-866 Utilities and Services Management 3 SID, URP
GIS-871 Geodesy 3 GM
GIS-872 Integrated Geo-Technologies 3 GM
GIS-873 Corporate GIS 3 GM
GIS-874 Web GIS 3 GM
GIS-875 GIS Project Management 3 GM
GIS-876 Geostatistics 3 GM
GIS-877 Spatial Decision Support Systems 3 GM
GIS-878 GIS Standards, Security and Ethics 3 GM
GIS-901 Special Topics in GIS 3 GM
GIS-911 Special Topics in Remote Sensing 3 GM
These courses will be offered in the third semester of the MS Program. However, one student can select minimum 4 courses to complete its required credit hours.

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Research Thesis

GIS-899: Masters Thesis Research


Credit Hours: 6
Prerequisite: 24 credits course work in MS (RS & GIS)
Objective:
The thesis is seen as a major component of the Program in which the student will demonstrate an ability to independently integrate knowledge, skills and competencies acquired from all earlier courses, together with an opportunity to consolidate and develop additional skills in the use and application of research methodologies. In the last semester of the MS Program an independent study will be defined in consultation with the course coordinator and will be based on:
a. A specific research topic brought from the remote sensing & GIS industry. In this case, the topic will be discussed and finalized by mutual consultation of the corresponding industry, student and the MS (RS&GIS) course coordinator of the Department
b. A research project proposed by research supervisor or associate researchers within or outside the host Department
c. A development from a guided project pursued in RS and GIS, Applied Remote Sensing or an idea developed by the student during the earlier taught parts of the course.
In all cases there will be a close liaison prior to, and during the project between the student, the course contributors and relevant industry organizations.

COURSE OUTLINES

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GIS-501: Introduction to Geographical Information Systems and Spatial Analysis


Course Structure: Lectures: 2 / Labs: 1 Credit Hours: 3 (2+1)
Prerequisite: None
Objective:
This course introduces principles, concepts and applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Students will have the scope of using GIS for applications in their related fields such as natural resource management, environment, civil engineering, agriculture, information system, etc will be discussed through mini project and laboratory exercises. This course also provides an examination of the common spatial analytical tools used in a Geographic Information Systems environment. Students are given ‘hands-on’ experience with data extraction techniques, data reduction techniques and data evaluation methodologies. Spatial analyses are undertaken using mainly ESRI’s ArcGIS.
Course Contents:
Understanding Geographical Information System, Introduction to Arc GIS, Data Types (Spatial / Aspatial), Data Models & Structures (Raster / Vector), Exploring GIS Dataset in Arc Catalog, Data Sources and Capturing Techniques, Displaying and Manipulating spatial information, Vector Data Preparation (Digitization and Spatial Data Editing), Working on vector data in Arc GIS (Scanning, Digitization and Editing), GPS Survey, Integrating GPS data in GIS Environment, Multidisciplinary Applications of GIS, Understanding the concept (vector, raster and statistical analysis), Thematic Mapping, Distance Measurements, Vector Data Query and Object Selection, Buffering, Density Mapping and Map Overlay analysis
Lab Work:
Introduction to GIS Lab (hardware / software), Raster/Vector/Attribute Data Display, Scanning, Digitization, Coordinate based point mapping, Raster / Vector Conversion, Data layer integration and display of different projections, Map layout, Data Classification and Thematic Mapping, Handling with Topological Errors, Overlay and network analysis.
Reference Material:
· Aronoff, S. (2005) Remote Sensing for GIS Managers, ESRI Press: Redlands.
· Aronoff, S. (2004) "Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective" WDL Publications, Ottawa, Fifth Edition. ISBN – 0912804008
· Clarke, K. (2004) “Getting started with Geographic Information System”, Prentice Hall, New York, Second Edition. ISBN – 1879102897
· Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S. (2003) “An introduction to Geographic Information System”, Addison Wesley Longman, New York, Second Edition. ISBN – 0130611980
· Duckham, M., Michael F. Goodchild, Michael F. Worboys, (2003) Foundations of Geographic Information Science, Tylor & Francis, NewYork, USA
· Demers, M. N. (2002) Fundamentals of Geographic Information System, , John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Singapore
· Chang, K. (2002) Introduction to Geographic Information Systems, McGraw- Hill Company, New York, U.S.A
· Burrough, P.( 2002) “Principles of Geographic Information Systems for Land Resources Management”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Second Edition. ISBN - 0198233655.
· McDonald, R. and Burrough, P. (2001) “Principles of Geographic Information Systems”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Second Edition ISBN–198233855
· Foresman, T. (1997) “The history of Geographic Information System”, Prentice Hall, New York. ISBN – 0138621454
· Sullivan, D. and David J. Unwin (2003) “Geographic Information Analysis”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada. ISBN: 0-471-2117-1
· Haining, R. (2003) Spatial Data Analysis : Theory and Practice Cambridge University Press ISBN: 0521774373

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GIS-511: Introduction to Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing


Course Structure: Lectures: 2 / Labs: 1 Credit Hours: 3 (2+1)
Prerequisite: None
Objective:
This course aims at providing students with principles of Remote Sensing (RS) technology, which is the tool to obtain information on the earth from sub meter level to km level locally and globally. Basic image processing techniques and skill to analyze remotely sensed image will be taught as well. Moreover, this course will familiarize students with the essential of digital image processing techniques. Emphasis is given on implementation of digital image processing packages using a wide range of pre-image processing, image classification, accuracy assessment techniques. The main focus of this course will be hands on experience using real life remotely sensed data pertinent to its multidisciplinary applications.
Course Contents:
Understanding the concept of Electromagnetic Spectrum, Physical basis of remote sensing, Atmospheric Interaction, sensor systems (Orbits, Satellites, Sensors and Platforms), Multidisciplinary applications of Remote Sensing, Digital Image processing cycle overview, ERDAS Imagine – Environment, data formats, image pre-processing, Noise Corrections, geometric rectification, registration and re-sampling, Radiometric Corrections, image classification types and algorithms, accuracy assessment techniques, confusion matrices, Data Fusion and Mosaicing. Multi-disciplinary applications.
Lab Work:
Introduction to labs., Single band image interpretation, False color predictions, False color composite Images Interpretation, Visual Interpretation of aerial photographs, Various sensors data comparison, Thermal Infrared Image interpretation, Introduction to ERDAS Imagine, display, Geo-linking, Zooming, Identification of targets, and Ground Truthing through Field Trips
Reference Material:
· Campbell, J. B. (2006) Introduction to Remote Sensing, 4th Edition, The Guilford Press: New York.
· Aronoff, S. (2005) Remote Sensing for GIS Managers, ESRI Press: Redlands.
· W. G. Rees (2001) Physical Principles of Remote Sensing Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. ISBN: 0521669480
· Robert A. Schowengerdt (January 15, 1997) Remote Sensing 2nd edition, Academic Press ISBN: 0126289816
· Thomas M. Lillesand & Ralph W. Kiefer (Year 2000) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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GIS-521: Introduction to Spatial Database and Programming


Course Structure: Lectures: 2 / Labs : 1 Credit Hours: 3 (2+1)
Prerequisite: None
Objective:
This course aims at providing students with understanding of database management systems and programming. Introductory data modeling and management techniques will be taught. Moreover, this course will familiarize students with the essential of programming, logic of programming and introductory customization of GIS software. Course Contents: Understanding Database System, Database Structure, Data Modeling, Database Design, Spatial Database, Normalization, Introduction to Programming, Program Logics, Object Oriented Programming, Properties and Methods of Objects, Introduction to Visual Basic, GUI Development, Loops and Decision Constructs, Designing of a Database Application, Customization of ArcGIS GUI
Lab Work:
Structured Query language commands, PL/SQL Commands, Creating & populating tables, Design of simple database: Conceptual, logical and physical level, Database normalization process techniques, Query optimization (Relational Algebra), Indexing concepts, Performance of concurrency protocols, Partial & full recovery techniques, Concepts of database securities, Development of a GUI interface (optional). Looping statements, Getting and setting object parameters, Exploring the geo-processor object, Glacier clipping exercise, Glacier raster statistics exercise, projects
Reference Material:
· Gillenson, M. (2005) Fundamentals of Database Management Systems John Wiley & Sons: New York.
· Kropla, B. (2005) “MapServer: Open Source GIS Development” Apress, Co. ISBN: 1590594908
· Worboys, M. and Matt Duckham (2004) GIS: A Computing Perspective, 2nd Edition CRC Press; 2nd edition ISBN: 0415283752
· Date, C. D. (2004) Database Systems, Addison Wesley Pub. Co.: New York, ISBN – 0201385902.
· Connolly, R. and P.Begg (2003) Database Systems: A Practical Approach toDesign, Implementation and Management, , Addison- Wesley Pub. Co, New York, ISBN – 0321210255.
· Elmasri, R. and Navathe, S.B (2004) “Fundamentals of Database Systems” Addison-Wesley Pub. Co ISBN – 0-201760355
· Kirkup, L. (2002) Data Analysis with Excel®: An Introduction for Physical Scientists, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
· Halpin, T. (2001) Information Modeling and Relational Databases: From Conceptual Analysis to Logical Design (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems) Morgan Kaufmann; 1st edition ISBN: 1558606726
· Rigaux, P. Scholl, M. and Voisard, A.(2001) “Spatial Databases: With Application to GIS” Morgan Kaufmann; 2nd edition ISBN – 01017386802.
· Ralston, B. A. (2002) Developing GIS Solutions with MapObjects and Visual Basic, Onword Press, New York. ISBN: 0766854388.
· Rigaux, P. Scholl, M. and Voisard, A.(2001) “Spatial Databases: With Application to GIS” Morgan Kaufmann; 2nd edition.ISBN: 1558605886.
· Bugg, K.E. (2003)“GIS programming: prepare for the gathering storm” GEO.

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GIS-801: Advanced Geographical Information Systems


Course Structure: Lectures: 2 / Labs : 1 Credit Hours: 3 (2+1)
Prerequisite: Deficiency Courses
Objective:
This course will familiarize students with advanced topics of GIS such as spatial database accuracy assessment, 2D and 3D spatial modeling, analysis of discrete and continuous entities in space. There will be special emphasis on statistical analysis of spatial data. Students will be trained to develop models based on regression analysis and logical analysis. Students will also learn customization and automation in GIS and also learn techniques to put the GIS on to Internet.
Course Contents:
Co-ordinate System and Map Projection, Drawing of Map Projections and Error Estimations, Understanding of Cartographic Errors and Rectification Procedures, Cleaning and Editing Cartographic Data Visualization of Geospatial Data, Symbolization and Map Layouts Development, 3D Visualization of Spatial Data, Alternate Approaches for Mapping (Geocoding, Survey Data Integration), Geocoding and Survey Data Integration in GIS, Point Pattern Analysis, Lines and Networks, Performing Network Analysis, Area Objects and Spatial Autocorrelation, Describing and Analyzing Fields, Spatial Interpolations, Geostatistical Analysis, Map Overlay Analysis, Multivariate Data, Multidimensional Space and Spatialization, GIS Modeling and Related Issues.
Lab Work:
Spatial Analyses: Conditional, Density, Distance, Extraction, Generalization, Ground Water, Hydrology, Interpolation, Local, Map Algebra, Mathematical, Multivariate, Neighborhood, Overlay, Raster Creation, Reclassification, Surface and Zonal Analysis. 3D Analysis: Conversion, Functional Surfaces, TIN Creation and TIN Surface Analysis in ArcMap and 3D visualization in ArcScene and ArcGlobe
Reference Material:
· Stillwell, J. (2004) Applied GIS and Spatial Analysis John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. England ISBN: 0470844094.
· Aronoff, S. (2004) "Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective", WDL Publications, Ottawa, Fifth Edition. ISBN - 0912804008
· Clarke, K. (2004) “Getting started with Geographic Information System”, Prentice Hall , New York, Second Edition. ISBN - 1879102897
· Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S. (2003) “ An introduction to Geographic Information System”, Addison Wesley Longman, New York, Second Edition. ISBN - 0130611980
· Burrough, P.( 2002) “Principles of Geographic Information Systems for Land Resources Management”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Second Edition. ISBN - 0198233655
· McDonald, R. and Burrough, P. (2001) “Principles of Geographic Information Systems”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Second Edition ISBN - 0198233855
· Foresman, T. (1997) “The history of Geographic Information System”, Prentice Hall, New York. ISBN – 0138621454.
· Stewart Fotheringham, Chris Brunsdon, Martin E Charlton (2000) Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis SAGE Publications ISBN: 0761959483.
· Jacek Malczewski (1999) GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, ISBN: 0471329444.
· Molenaar, M. (1998) An Introduction to the Theory of Spatial Object Modelling for GIS Taylor & Francis, Inc. ISBN: 074840774X.

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GIS-811: Advanced Remote Sensing and Image Processing


Course Structure: Lectures: 2 / Labs : 1 Credit Hours: 3 (2+1)
Prerequisite: Deficiency Courses
Objective:
This course aims at providing students with advanced Remote Sensing analytical techniques required in various applications; how to extract high-level information from RS data. The techniques taught covers coupling of model parameters and remote sensing data for several applications, atmospheric correction, Multi-temporal/Multi-Resolution data analysis, Web Image Server. In the digital image processing part, student will be exposed to advanced topics of digital image processing and their applications in optical, thermal and microwave remotely sensed data sets.
Course Contents:
In depth understanding of image processing, analysis and interpretation. Topics include human vision and colour, the construction, arithmetic operations, empirically based image transformations, filtering of images, discrete Fourier transformations, principal components analysis, and spatial modeling, advanced image classifications such as fuzzy classifications, neural classifiers, spatial and spectral segmentation, sub pixel classification. SAR interferometry, applications of SAR interferometry, image spectrometry, Feature Extraction from Hyperspectral data, Image Residuals, Spectral Fingerprints, Absorption-band Parameters, Spectral Derivative Ratio, Classification Algorithms for Hyperspectral Data, radar remote sensing, speckle noise and suppression, texture analysis, data Fusion, DEM extraction from stereo SAR. Computer-based exercises are an essential part of this course.
Lab Work:
Image Composition Development for Multi Spectral, Image Enhancement and Filters, Image Fusions, Image Classification: Supervised and Unsupervised Classification, Classification Schemes, Indices Development: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Leaf Area Index in ERDAS Imagine.
Reference Material:
· Campbell, B. J. (2006) Introduction to Remote Sensing, 4th Ed., The Guilford Press, New York, ISBN # 0-7484-0663-8 (pbk).
· McCoy, R. (2004) Field Methods in Remote Sensing, The Guilford Press: New York, ISBN: 1593850794
· Mather, P. (2004) Computer processing of remotely sensed images. Third Edition, J Wiley. ISBN 0-470-849193.
· Egan, W. G. and Egan, W. (2003) Optical Remote Sensing: Science and Technology (Optical Engineering) Marcel Dekker ISBN: 0824741315
· Landgrebe, D. A. (2003) Signal Theory Methods in Multispectral Remote Sensing (Wiley Series in Remote Sensing and Image Processing) Wiley- Interscience; Bk&CD-Rom edition: New York, ISBN: 047142028X.
· Henderson, F.M. and Lewis, A. J (1998) Principles & Application Imaging radar / Manual of Remote Sensing / Third Edition, Volume 2, Published in Cooperation with the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
· Peebles, P.Z (1998) Radar Principles, Wiley Inter science, New York.
· Elachi, C. (1988): Spaceborne Radar Remote Sensing: Applications and Techniques, IEEE Press, New York.
· Ulaby, F. T. (1986) Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, Volume II: Radar Remote Sensing and Surface Scattering and Emission Theory Artech House Publishers ISBN: 0890061912

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GIS-821: Advanced Spatial Database and Programming


Course Structure: Lectures: 2 / Labs : 1 Credit Hours: 3 (2+1)
Prerequisite: Deficiency Courses
Objective:
This course aims at providing students with understanding of advanced concepts of database management systems and programming. Spatial data modeling and management techniques will be taught. Moreover, this course will provide students with the depth of programming, Logical flow of GIS software development and customization of GIS interfaces.
Course Contents:
Database and Geodatabase, Integration of Data into Geodatabase Topology, Subtypes and Attribute Domains, Relationship Classes and Geometric Networks, UML and CASE Tools for Geodatabase, Overview of Visual Basic, Understanding MapObjects, Maps and Layers Controls, Coordinates and Map Projections, Geometrics, Map Display and Features Rendering, Data Access and Control, Address Matching, Application Deployment
Lab Work:
Personal Geodatabase Development, Feature Classes, Feature Dataset, Relationship Classes, Geometric Networks, Topological Classes, Sub-Type and Domain Development in Geodatabase, Spatial Data Modeling in UML by using Microsoft Visio, Programming through MapObjects and ArcObjects.
Reference Material
v· Chang, K. (2005) Programming in ArcObjects with VBA: A Task- Oriented Approach, CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL ISBN: 0849327814
· Ralston, B. (2002) Developing GIS Solutions with Map Objects and Visual Basic Onward Press, Thomson Learning, New York. ISBN: 0766854388
· Rigaux, P. (2002) Spatial Databases: with Application to GIS (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems) Academic Press: New York.
· Kraak, M. (2001) Web Cartography Taylor & Francis ISBN: 074840869X
· Houlding, S. W. (2000) Practical Geostatistics: Modeling and Spatial Analysis (with CD-ROM) Springer; Bk &CD Rom edition ISBN: 3540668209

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GIS-881: Research Methods


Course Structure: Lectures: 2 / Labs : 1 Credit Hours: 3 (3+0)
Prerequisite: None
Objective:
The main objective of the course is to introduce the procedures and techniques of research in a systematic way. These techniques enable student to identify the research problem and make appropriate framework to conduct the research. This course provides the guideline to the students for their thesis work which is mandatory in MS Program.
Course Contents:
Introduction to Research, Defining the Research Problem, Research Design, Sampling Design, Data Sources and Quality, Methods of Data Collections, Variables form Remotely Sensed Data, Processing and Analysis of Data, Sampling Spatial and Aspatial data, Parametric or Standard Tests of Hypothesis, Nonparametric Test of Hypothesis, Multivariate Analysis Techniques, Spatial Analysis, Cartographic Modeling, Interpretation and Report Writing, Seminar on Research Project findings.
Reference Material
· John W. Creswell, 2002 Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, Sage Publications, Inc, ISBN-10: 0761924426
· Anthony M. Graziano and Michael L. Raulin, 2006, Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry, Allyn & Bacon; 6th edition, ISBN-10: 020551684X
· Robert K. Yin, 2002, Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage Publications, Inc, ISBN-10: 0761925538
· Ranjit Kumar, 2005, Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, Sage Publications, Inc, ISBN-10: 141291194X

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GIS 831: Agriculture and Food Security


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course focuses on GIS, GPS, and remote sensing principles in agriculture applications. Emphasis is placed on hands-on experience working with local producers and agronomic consultants. Students will be engaged in collecting and acquiring data, developing spatial databases, analyzing data, and communicating findings. Students will also explore agriculture as a landscape complex, examine regulatory requirements, and identify conservation opportunities.
Course Contents
Farming Systems
Farm Management
Precision Agriculture
Agriculture Marketing
Rural Finance
Farm Power and Equipment
Food and Agricultural Industries
Post Harvest Management
Irrigation and Water Management
Crop Types and Distribution
Agriculture of Pakistan
Food Security
Reference Material:
· Brase T. (2005) Precision Agriculture, Thomson Delmar Learning, ISBN: 140188105X
· Robinson G. M. (2003) Geographies of Agriculture: Globalisation, Restructuring, and Sustainability Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0582356628
· Rogers G. B. (1971) Agriculture, marketing and the environment: Problems and research needs (ERS), ASIN: B000711FV0
· Rao H. H., Agriculture (2006) Food Security, Poverty and Environment: Essays on Post-reform India, Oxford University Press, USA , ISBN-10: 019568396X

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GIS 832: Forest Management


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The Forest Management course aims to integrate ecological, historical, social, political and economic factors affecting forest management. In practical and field work the course studies the management of one forest in detail, and reviews different aspects of forest management else-where in the world by reference to specific topics and case studies especially in GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective.
Course Contents
Introduction to Forest Management
Types of Forest
Controlling Factors (Climate, Soil, Water, Human Activities etc.)
Zonal Distribution of Forest (Boreal, Mediterranean, Tropical, Alpine etc.)
Biodiversity
Timber Products and Their Markets
Agroforestry
Catchments Forestry
Forest Monitoring
Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Forest Management
Forest Management in Pakistan
Reference Material
· Wulder, M. and Steven E. Franklin (Eds.) (2006) Understanding Forest Disturbance and Spatial Pattern: Remote Sensing and GIS Approaches, Taylor and Francis: Boca Raton, Fl.
· Hunter, M.L. (1999) Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge University Press
· Dawkins, H.C. and Philip, M.S. (1998) Tropical moist forest silviculture and management. A history of success and failure. CAB International
· Bruenig, E.F. (1996) Conservation and Management of Tropical Rainforests. CAB International: Wallingford
· Matthews, J.D. (1989) Silvicultural Systems. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

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GIS 833: Soil Geomorphology and Classifications


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course intends to explore fundamentals of soil genesis, characteristics and classifications. Soil is a resource for almost every land use activity. This course also discusses the Soil Information System (SIS), which is a special kind of geo-information system dedicated to the production of, among others, relevant information about soil types, soil properties, soil erosion and land degradation hazards and soil constraints and opportunities for various rural, semi-urban, and urban land uses.
Course Contents
Stratigraphy
Textural Characteristics of Soil Materials
Morphology and Composition of Soils
Biogeochemical Processes in Soil Formation
Soil as a Component of the Ecosystem
Space and Time in Soil Formation
Modern Soil Classification Systems
Soil Erosion
Soil Fertility
Characteristics of Soil Mapping
Soil Mapping through Remote Sensing
Soil Information System
Major Soil Types of Pakistan
Reference Material
· Schaetzl R. J. and Anderson S. (2005) Soils : Genesis and Geomorphology, Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 0521812011
· Hole F.D., McCracken R. J., Southard R.J., and Buol S. W. (1997) Soil Genesis and Classification, Iowa State Press; 4th edition, ISBN: 0813814642
· Daniels R. B.and Hammer R. D. (1992) Soil Geomorphology, John Wiley & Sons: New York, ISBN: 0-471-51153-6
· Buol S. W. (2002) Soil Genesis and Classification, Iowa State Press: USA, 5th edition, ISBN-10: 0813828732

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GIS 834: Hydrology and Water Resources


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course intends to give deep insight about water management system that can be applied to a wide range of water industry problems. The integrated approach used in his course is beneficial to the students who need to understand the complex details of today’s water resource systems and to deal with the numerous economic, legal, and regulatory factors of importance to both the public and private sectors. The GIS based exercises will introduce the GIT in Hydrology and Water Resource Management.
Course Contents
Management in the Water Industry
Hydrology and the Water Environment
Water Infrastructure and Systems
Planning and Decision-Making Processes
Systems Analysis, Models, and Decision Support Systems
Water Environmental Law, Regulation and Administration
Financial Planning and Management
Water Industry Structure
Water Supply and Environment
Flood Control, Floodplain Management and Storm water Management
Reservoir Operations and Management
Water Quality Management and Nonpoint Source Control
Watersheds and Riverine Systems
Water Use Conservation and Efficiency
Groundwater Management
River basin Planning and Coordination
Drought and Water Supply Management
Regionalization in Water Management
Water Management in Estuaries and Coastal Waters
Role of GIS in Water Resource Management
Organization of Water Agencies in Pakistan
Reference Material
· Lyon, J. (2003) GIS for Water Resources and Watershed Management, CRC Press, ISBN: 0415286077
· Grigg, N. S. (1996) Water Resources Management: Principles, Regulations, and Cases, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN: 007024782X
· Mays L. W. (1996) Water Resources Handbook, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN: 0070411506
· Hall M. K., Walker C. S., Huth A., Kendall L. P., Weeks J. A., and Jenness J. S., 2006, Exploring Water Resources: GIS Investigations for the Earth Sciences, ArcGIS® Edition, Brooks Cole, USA, ISBN-10: 0495115126

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GIS-835 Conservation of Biodiversity


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with the concept of biodiversity conservation, sustainable development and how can conservation plans be transformed into action at global, regional, country and local level. The use of RS & GIS/GPS with specific examples from around the world will be discussed as well.
Course Contents
Introduction to Biodiversity
Studying Biodiversity
Global Biodiversity Assessment
Biodiversity Conservation & Sustainable Development
The Spatial Nature of Conservation & Mapping
Ecological Census Techniques
Uses of RS & GIS in Biodiversity Conservation
Ecological Zones of Pakistan
Biodiversity of Pakistan
Conservation Efforts in Pakistan (Law, Plans, & Projects)
Reference Material:
· Convis, L. C. (Ed.) (2001) Conservation Geography ESRI Press; 1st edition ISBN: 1589480244
· Feinsinger, P. (2001) Designing Field Studies for Biodiversity Conservation: The Nature Conservancy Island Press ISBN: 1559638788
· Savitsky, B. and Lacher Jr. E. T. (1998) GIS Methodologies for Developing Conservation Strategies Columbia University Press ISBN: 0231100264
· Patent, D. H. and Munoz, W. (1996) Biodiversity Clarion Books ISBN: 0395687047

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GIS 836: Management of Energy Resources


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course provides the understanding of renewable, non-renewable, conventional and alternate energy resources and their management issues. Recent days Remote Sensing and GIS have become essential for exploration, monitoring and overall management. This course also covers key concepts and applications of Geo-Information Technologies, which is being used in energy resource management.
Course Contents
Energy resources
Conventional energy conversion
Energy Demand
Distribution of Energy Resources
Nature of Gas and Oil (Petroleum, Chemical Composition, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Reservoir Hydrocarbons)
The Earth’s Crust
Petroleum Exploration – Geological and Geochemical (Seeps, Geological Techniques, Geochemical Techniques, Geophysical)
Drilling Preliminaries
Drilling Techniques, Problems and Monitoring
Offshore Drilling and Management
Environmental Issues in Energy Resource Development
Alternate Energy Resources
Oil and Gas Information System
Reference Material:
· Hyne, J. N., Hyne, Ph.D. J. N. and Hyne, Ph.d. J. N. (2001) Nontechnical Guide to Petroleum Geology, Exploration, Drilling and Production, Pennwell Books; 2nd edition, ISBN: 087814823X
· Rigaux , P., Scholl, M. and Voisard, A. (2001) Spatial Databases: With Application to GIS (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems), Morgan Kaufmann; 2nd edition, ISBN: 1558605886
· Bradley , R. (2004) ENERGY: The Master Resource, Kendall Hunt Pub Co, ISBN: 0757511694
· Green Building Guidelines: Meeting the Demand for Low-Energy, (2004) Resource-Efficient Homes, Sustainable Buildings Industry Council, ISBN: 0976207311

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GIS 837: Management of Mineral Resources


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course aims on GIS, GPS, and remote sensing applications in Mineral Resources Management. Mine surveys provide a starting point and then complete data sets with all related information is to be created for inventory and analysis of mineral resources., which is very much spatial in nature. Furthermore the environmental impacts of mine waste dumps and the improvement of the mine safety for the mining industry are also fields, where GIS could give a significant support. Students will be engaged in collecting and acquiring data, developing spatial databases, analyzing data, and communicating findings. Students will also explore Mineral resources; examine their extent and depletion stage and specifically the economic potentials and available opportunities for sustainable mining operations.
Course Contents
Introduction of Mineral Resources
Mineral Resources potential / availability in Pakistan
Mine Surveying
Geological setting, characteristics and genesis of major categories of mineral resources
Geology & Mineral Industries
RS based exploration techniques
Satellite Image Processing for Mineral Resources
Development of Integrated GIS Database for Mineral Resources
Minerals, Mining, and a Sustainable Society
Reference Material:
· United Nations(2003), Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Integrated Assessment and Management of Mine: Mineral Resources Assessment, Development and Management, United Nations Publications, ISBN: 9211200768, 312 pages
· Akhavi, M.S., Webster, T.L., and Raymond, D.A., (2001) RADARSAT-1imagery and GIS modeling for mineral exploration in Nova Scotia, Canada: Geocarto International, v. 16, n. 1, p. 55-61.
· Reddy, R.K.T., Bonham-Carter, G.F., and Wright, D.F., (1990) GIS for mapping mineral resource potential: preliminary results of basemetal study, Snow Lake area, Manitoba: GIS for the 1990’s Conference Proceedings, p. 384-400.
· Camus, J. P. (2002) Management of Mineral Resources: Creating Value in the Mining Business, Soc for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, USA, ISBN-10: 0873352165

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GIS-841 Coastal Zone Management


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
Geographical Information Systems are increasingly being used to analyze and manage marine and coastal zones. They provide a powerful set of tools for use in coastal zone supervision. This course has been designed to provide the basic understanding of Coastal Management as well as know how of recent developments and specific applications that can be used to help marine scientists and conservationists enhance their skills. The techniques include RS & GIS applications in a coastal setting, including shoreline mapping, ship borne data collection techniques, coastal decision making with GIS and more.
Course Contents
Understanding Coastal Environment
Coastal Pressures & Critical Management Issues
Risk & Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Hazards
Coastal Management Programs & Policies
Major Coastal Management & Planning Techniques
Coastal Spatial Data Infrastructure
Monitoring Coastal Environment using Remote Sensing & GIS
Spatial Uncertainty in Marine and Coastal GIS
Coastal Zone Management in Pakistan
Reference Material:
· Beatley, T., Brower, J. D. and Schwab, K. A. (2002) An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management Island Press; 2nd edition ISBN: 1559639156
· Vernberg, J. F. and Vernberg, B. W. (2001) The Coastal Zone: Past, Present, and Future University of South Carolina Press ISBN: 1570033943
· Kay, R. and Alder, J. (1999) Coastal Planning and Management Sponpress ISBN: 041924350X
· Cicin-sain, B. and Knecht, W. R. (1998) Integrated Coastal & Ocean Management : Concepts and Practices Island Press ISBN: 1559636041

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GIS-842 Natural Hazards & Disaster Management


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
While natural hazards cannot be prevented, their human impacts can be greatly reduced through advance action that mitigates risks and reduces vulnerability. This course focuses primarily on the understanding of hazards, disasters, vulnerability assessment and the potential uses of GIT for natural disaster management in all the three phases, i.e. pre-disaster, disaster, and postdisaster with examples from globe and particularly Pakistan.
Course Contents
Introduction to Natural Hazards and Disasters (Concepts & Definitions)
Hazard Dimensions, Distributions, Patterns, Associated Processes & History of Hazards Research
Social & Economic Aspects of Natural Hazards
Individual and Community Adjustments: Perceptions, Attitudes and Behavior
Hazard and Disaster Investigation
Hazard Vulnerability Assessment & Mapping
Risk Management
Natural Disaster Management Cycle
Pre-Disaster Phase (Prevention, Mitigation & Preparedness)
Disaster Phase (Response)
Post-Disaster Phase (Rehabilitation, Development)
Geo-Information Technologies (GIT) for Natural Disaster Management
Natural Hazards & Disasters in Pakistan
Natural Disaster Management in Pakistan
Use of Geo-Information Technologies (GIT) for Natural Hazard Management in Pakistan (Plans, Projects, Potential Advancements)
Reference Material:
· Benson, C. and Clay, J. E. (2004) Understanding the Economic and Financial Impacts of Natural Disasters World Bank Publications ISBN: 0821356852
· Greene, W. R. (2002) Confronting Catastrophe: A GIS Handbook ESRI Press ISBN: 1589480406
· Beatley, T., Berke, P. & (1999) Natural Hazard Mitigation: Recasting Disaster Policy and Planning Island Press ISBN: 1559636025
· Stefan, H. (2006) Macroeconomic Risk Management Against Natural Disasters: Analysis focused on governments in developing countries, DUV, ISBN-10: 3835005944

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GIS 843: Environmental Pollution


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course targets the development of basic understanding about the pollutants, contaminants, waste and the dispersion of different chemicals in the environment based on anthropogenic activities. The emphasis of this course is on the pollution abatement techniques and the role of GIS and Remote Sensing to identify the pollution sources, dispersion and evaluation of the environmental risks associated with the persistence of pollutants in the environment.
Course Contents
Environmental Pollution (Existence and Persistence)
Pollutants and Nature of Pollutants
Sources and Types of Pollution
Solid Waste Management
Air Pollution Monitoring & GIS Modeling
Ground Water Pollution Assessment through GIS Modeling
Soil Contamination: Exposure and Assessment
Integrated Assessment and Modeling for Pollution
GIS as an Analytical Tool
GIS and Risk Assessment
Human Exposure Towards Pollution
Pollution Control Techniques
Role of Environmental Protection Agency in Environmental Management of Pakistan
Reference Material:
· Hill, M. K. (2004) Understanding Environmental Pollution: A Primer, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-10: 0521820243
· Nathanson, J. & Nathanson, A. J. (1999) Basic Environmental Technology: Water Supply, Waste Management, and Pollution Control, 3rd Edition), Prentice Hall: New York, ISBN: 013082626X
· Peirce, J. J., Vesilind, A. P. & Weiner, R. (1997) Environmental Pollution and Control, 4th Edition Butterworth-Heinemann; ISBN: 0750698993
· Goodchild, F. M. & Parks, O. B. (1993) Environmental Modeling With GIS Oxford University Press ISBN: 0195080076

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GIS 844: Environmental Impact Assessment


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course provides a specific introduction towards Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and techniques to enhance the capability and skills of participants to plan conduct and review the EIAs of development projects. The guidelines for planning and designing impact assessment studies and selection of parameters for establishing baselines are the core component of the course. The participants will also explore the EIA case studies for development projects in the light of Pakistan’s Scenario.
Course Contents
An Introduction to Sustainability
Natural Resource Mapping: An Overview
Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
EIA Methods and Techniques
EIA Process
Statutory Requirements and Standards for EIA
Risk Assessment in the EIA Process
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
EIA for Development Processes in Pakistan
Integrating EIA, GIS & Remote Sensing in Development Process
Environmental Monitoring, Auditing and Management Systems
EIA Case Studies
Reference Material:
· Rodiguez-Bachiller, A. with Glasson, J. (2004) Expert Systems and Geographical Information Systems for Impact Assessment, Taylor and Francis ISBN: 0-415-30725-2
· Morris, P. & Therive, R. (2001) Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment: Spons Architecture Publisher; 2nd Edition ISBN: 0415239591
· Marriott , B. B. (1997) Environmental Impact Assessment: A Practical Guide McGraw-Hill Professional 1ST Edition ISBN: 0070404100
· Canter, L. (1995) Environmental Impact Assessment, McGraw-Hill: New York ISBN-10: 0070097674

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GIS 845: Environmental Decisions and Conflict Resolution


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course explores the causes of conflicts involving environmental concerns, without presuming that environmental disputes are necessarily a cause of conflict. The aim of the course is to explore theories of conflict and cooperation from various disciplinary perspectives and focus on the practice of conflict resolution and various approaches to resolving conflicts and their relative applicability in different parts of the world.
Course Contents
Environmental Decision Making
The Decision Making Pyramid
Linking Mechanism of Decision Making
Skills for Environmental Decision Making and Conflict Resolution
Environmental Decision Making Under Uncertainty
Strategies of Environmental Decision Making
Environmental Issues and Conflict Resolution
Problem Solving Approach towards Conflict Resolution
Conflict Resolution Mechanism in Sustainable Environmental Management
Strategies for Dealing With Environmental Risk Conflicts
Reference Material:
· O'Leary, R. and Bingham, L. B. (2003) The Promise and Performance of Environmental Conflict Resolution, RFF Press, USA, ISBN-10: 1891853651
· O'Brien, M. (2000) Making Better Environmental Decisions: An Alternative to Risk Assessment 1st edition, The MIT Press; ISBN: 0262650533
· El-Swaify, S. A. and Yakowitz, D. S. (1998) Multiple Objective Decision Making for Land, Water, and Environmental Management (International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support system), 1st edition, David Lewis Pub; ISBN: 1574440918
· Wittmer, H., Rauschmayer, F., Klauer, B., How to select instruments for the resolution of environmental conflicts?, Elsevier Ltd, Digital Book

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GIS 846: Disease Ecology


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The major goal of this course is to introduce students to geographical approaches to health and disease, particularly within the setting of human-environment interactions. This course covers many specific diseases; each is prototypical of one or more aspects of environmental equilibrium and disequilibrium.
Course Contents
Fundamental Concepts of Health and Disease
Concepts of Disease Ecology
Parasitism and History; An Introduction
Environmental Diseases (airborne and waterborne etc.)
Vector borne Diseases
Infectious Diseases and Communicable Diseases
Chronic Diseases
Malaria
AIDS
Tuberculosis
Asthma
Hepatitis
Cancer
Epidemiology
Geographical Analysis of Diseases Patterns
Reference Material:
· Collinge, S. K. and Ray, C. (2006) Disease Ecology: Community Structure and Pathogen Dynamics, Oxford University Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0198567081
· Greenblatt , C. and Spigelman, M. (2003) Emerging Pathogens: Archaeology, Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0198509014
· Gatrell, A. C. (2001) Geographies of Health: An Introduction, Blackwell Publishers; 1st edition, ISBN: 0631219854
· Learmonth, A. (1987) Disease Ecology: An Introduction to Ecological Medical Geography, Basil Blackwell, ISBN: 0631157999

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GIS 847: Climatology


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course provides an understanding about the study of climatology. This course examines the processes which underlie the behavior of the atmosphere close to the surface; specifically the transfer of heat, mass and momentum and how these modify the weather in short and climate in long terms.
Course Contents
Introduction to Climatology
Constituents and Structure of Atmosphere
Insolation
Air Temperature
Surface Pressure and Local Winds
Winds in Free Atmosphere
Moisture and Condensation Near Ground
Clouds and Precipitation
Air Masses and Fronts
Atmospheric Disturbances
Climatic Classification
Köppen's World Climate Types and Responses of Organisms
Climatic Change
Impacts of Climate on Human Activities
Weather Simulation in GIS
Reference Material:
· Perry, A. (2005) Applied Climatology, Principles and Practice, Routledge: London, ISBN-10: 041514101X
· Oliver, J. and Hidore, J. J. (2001) Climatology: An Atmospheric Science (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall, 2 edition, ISBN: 0130922056
· McGuffie, K. and Henderson-Sellers, A. (1997) A Climate Modelling Primer (Research & Developments in Climate & Climatology), John Wiley & Sons: New York, ISBN: 0471955582
· Henderson-Sellers, A. (1986) Contemporary Climatology, Prentice Hall: New Jersey, ISBN: 0582300576

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GIS 851: Land Use Planning & Management


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The aim of the courses is to provide the basics of land evaluation and land use planning methods using remote sensing and GIS. This course will improve the institutional capacity of organizations dealing with urban management. Through the courses, participants will be able to analyze land use planning, administration and infrastructure processes, and develop solutions to problems encountered in areas such as settlement upgrading, land supply and administration, and infrastructure development. Their new academic and technical skills will enable participants to contribute to improving these processes and will enhance their competence in decision making and the appropriate use of geo-information science and earth observation.
Course Contents
Concepts of Land Use & Land Use Management
Principles of Planning
Planning Information Systems
Scales in Land Use Planning (regional, city-wide, community)
Land Use Information in Planning Program
Use of GIS & Remote Sensing in Urban and Rural Land Use Management
Land Use Classification
Site Planning & Engineering
Use of GIS in Pre-feasibility Studies of Land Selection
Spatial Information System for Planning & Land Use Management
Land Use Development and Impacts on Environment
Current Land Monitoring Practices and Use of GIS
Framework for Land Use Policy
Reference Material:
· Meyer, N. V. (2004) GIS and Land Records: The Parcel Data Model, ESRI Press: Redlands, California, ISBN: 1589480775
· Randolph, J. (2003) Environmental Land Use Planning and Management Island Press ISBN: 1559639482
· Chapin Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, 4th edition University of Illinois Press; ISBN: 0252021010
· Chapin Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0252021010

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GIS 852: District Planning and Management


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The basic objective of this is give student and understanding about the existing local government system adopted after the devolution plan in year 2001, and the potential use of Geo-information technologies in all cohorts the new system for an efficient and better service delivery to public. A thorough understanding of the system along with its evolution study will give student a sufficient base to assess the need of GIT in the district government planning and management system. Case studies will be developed from any district government functionaries and prototype GIS based solution will be developed and presented to tackle any real world problem.
Course Contents
Concepts and theories of district planning
Evolution of local government system in Pakistan
Understanding the existing district government system from institutional point of view
Understanding the existing district government system from information flow point of view
Potential of GIT in the existing district government system
Developing SDI at District Level
Applying various model and techniques based on GIS
GIS for District Planning support
GIS for efficient service delivery
Public Participation, GIS and District Government System
Public-Private Partnership and Information Flow
Reference Material:
· Diappi, L. (2004) Evolving Cities: Geo-computation in Territorial Planning (Urban & Regional Planning & Development S.), Ashgate, ISBN: 0754641945
· Hall, P. (2002) Urban and Regional Planning Routledge: London ISBN-10: 0415217768
· GOP (2001) Local Government Act 2001, National Reconstruction Bureau, Islamabad, Government of Pakistan.
· ICIMOD (1992) Applications of GIS for natural resource management in Dhading District- Nepal, MENRIS case study series, MENRIS, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, ISBN: B0000CQP67

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GIS 853: Urban Planning


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
Urban areas in developing countries are confronted by significant problems related to the provision of serviced land, shelter, social facilities and the maintenance of an adequate living environment. The search for appropriate instruments to tackle these issues requires a thorough understanding of the problem environment and recognizes the need for integrated approaches. The course investigates information requirements across urban sectors, some analytical requirements and explores how GIS and RS tools can be applied in problem solving. Students will get the opportunity to apply the knowledge in a problem oriented setting. The course is built around actual problems from city’s development organizations. Students are expected to deepen their understanding of the application of GIS and RS in urban management and to build confidence for independent work in their future research work. Excursion to local urban management authorities will be arranged to understand their requirements and expected solutions.
Course Contents
Introduction of Urban Planning, historical background and theoretical concepts
Major Urban Threats and Challenges in Pakistan
Existing Institutional Infrastructure in Pakistan
Strategic Issues in various urban sectors
Urban Land development, housing and development control
Geo-information Technologies and their potential for urban issues
Information extraction from satellite images and aerial photograph
Visualization and Communication Issues
GIS Based Urban Planning Case Studies
Reference Material:
· Greene, R. and Pick, B. J. (2005) Exploring the urban environment through GIS / Upper Saddle River, NJ : Pearson Prentice Hall: New Jersey c ISBN: 0130175765
· Laurin, R. (2001) Information Systems for Urban Planning: A Hypermedia Cooperative Approach Taylor & Francis: London, 368 pages ISBN: 0748409645
· Hall P. (2002) Urban and Regional Planning Routledge: London, ISBN-10: 0415217768
· Chapin Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0252021010
· Easa, S. (2000) Urban Planning and Development Applications of GIS, Reston, VA: ASCE, 0-7844-0461-5, 283

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GIS-854 Infrastructure & Transport Planning


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course deals with both the process and techniques of transportation planning, with emphasis on utilization of Geographical Information System. Assuming basic knowledge of GIS, the students will be taught scientific principles from capturing to analyzing digital geographic information about transportation infrastructure and systems; intelligent transportation systems, environmental and hazards analysis, and logistics.
Course Contents
Infrastructure Demand for Transportation
Transportation Infrastructure Management& Planning
Operation of Transportation Facilities
System Analysis in Transportation
Transport and Development: Conceptual Frameworks
Role of Transport in the Development Process: A Case Study
Urban & Regional Dynamics
Transportation Policy, Planning & Development
Transportation Finance
Transport and the Environment
GIS for Transportation (Principles and Applications)
GIS Transport Data Models
Transportation Data Sources and Integration
Shortest Paths and Routing
GIS based Spatial Analysis and Modeling
Intelligent Transportation Systems
Logistics
Future Transport in Cities
Sustainability of Transport
Reference Material:
· Banister, D. (2002) Transport Planning (Transport Development and Sustainability), Spons Architecture Price Book; 2nd edition ISBN: 0415261716
· Parkin, J. and Sharma, D. (1999) Infrastructure Planning, Thomas Telford Services Ltd, ISBN: 0727727478
· Calvo, C. M. (1998) Options for Managing and Financing Rural Transport Infrastructure World Bank Publications ISBN: 0821342487
· Chapin Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0252021010
· Williams K. (2005) Spatial Planning, Urban Form And Sustainable Transport (Urban Planning and Environment), Ashgate Publishing, ISBN-10: 0754642518

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GIS 855: E-Governance


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: None
Objective:
This course explores scenarios for the use of information and communications technologies to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of government.
Course Contents
E-Governance for Development
E-Governance in Planning
Dimensions in E-Governance
E-Participation Ladder
Building E-Websites for Government
Municipal Geographic Information System (M-GIS)
Model City Program Through E-Government
Local E-Government Worldwide Review
The Digital Divide
Utilization of Best Practices for Implementing IT Initiatives
City District Government in Pakistan
Cyber Crime Division and Cyber Laws in Pakistan
Assessment of Online Government Services
Reference Material:
· Oliver, E. and Sanders, L. (2004) E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge, Age Publisher: University of Regina Canadian Plains Research, ISBN: 0889771707
· Williamson, E. O. (1999) The Mechanisms of Governance New Edition; Oxford University Press; ISBN: 0195132602
· Dunleavy, P., Margetts, H., Bastow, S. and Tinkler, J. (2006) Digital Era Governance: IT Corporations, the State, and e-Government, Oxford University Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0199296197
· Oliver, E. L. and Sanders, L. (2004) E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age, Canadian Plains Research Center, ISBN-10: 0889771707

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GIS-856 Planning and Management of Housing


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The course will examine housing needs of the region’s population. The intent is to use GIS to map and analyze the elements of the housing accessibility issues for of the region. As an application course the major focus will be applying GIS methods to current planning problems with the aim of preparing a professional product in a workshop setting. One third of the course reviews and extends core principles of geographic analysis and modeling as expressed in GIS technology. Two thirds of the course will be devoted to collaborative teamwork to define structure, analyze, and present the resolution of planning problems posed by a “client”. They are concerned with housing, health services, and accessibility to services essential for persons to remain home and to stay active and productive. Too often decisions on housing, transportation, health services, social facilities, commercial centers and the arts are made in isolation of one another and with little regard to how they might impact a growing elderly population. Maps creatively visualize spatial relationships between these elements. They can link land, building and activities.
Course Contents
Housing concepts and theories
Evaluation of public policies and Existing Housing Policy
GIT for Housing Sector Studies
Housing and market dynamics
Justification for government intervention in the housing market
housing markets and housing market analysis
Problems of racial discrimination, substandard housing, the homeless, affordability; including rent regulations, housing allowances, and subsidized production programs
Design next generation of low-income housing policies with effective market incentives
GIS for Housing: Case Studies
Reference Material
· BESR, (2003) GIS for Housing and Urban Development, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, National Academies Press, US, Digitally available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309088747
· Thrall, G. I. (1993) The Cascade GIS Diffusion Model for Measuring Housing Absorption by Small Area with a Case Study of St. Lucie County, Florida, American Real Estate Society
· Akhavi, M.S., Webster, T.L. and Raymond, D.A. (2001) RADARSAT-1imagery and GIS modeling for mineral exploration in Geocarto International: Nova Scotia, Canada, v. 16, n. 1, p. 55-61.
· Chapin Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press, US, ISBN-10: 0252021010

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GIS-861 Poverty Alleviation


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
For a developing country like Pakistan, there is a strong need to utilize the powers of Geo-Information Technologies in the Poverty Alleviation Policies, Plans and Projects leading to socio-economic development of the country through better decision-making and optimum utilization of resources. This course has been specially designed for the social scientists as well the developers to understand between development, poverty and the application of existing innovative technologies in poverty mapping, analysis, monitoring and alleviation.
Course Contents
Globalization, Growth & Poverty
Concepts and Measurement of Development, Poverty and Inequality
Poverty: Causes, Consequences and Cures
Identification of Poverty Indicators
Poverty Mapping: Concept, Methods & Application
Poverty Indices and Their Development
Mapping Poverty Indices and Geo-referenced Estimates of Poverty
Poverty Analysis, Monitoring and Evaluation
Essential Data for Poverty Analysis (Survey Data, Census Data)
Computing Poverty Indices from Census Data
Geo-Information Technologies in Poverty Alleviation
Regional Cooperation in GI use for Poverty Alleviation
Evolving Role of GIT In Poverty Modeling
Poverty Modeling Schema
Poverty Management
Poverty in Pakistan and Approaches for Poverty Alleviation
Use of GIT for Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan
Case Studies
Reference Material:
· Cline , W. R. (2004) Trade Policy and Global Poverty Institute for International Economics ISBN: 0881323659
· Food and Agriculture Organization (2004) Choosing a Method for Poverty Mapping United Nations Publications ISBN: 9251049203
· Bigman, D. and Fofack, H. (Eds) (2001) Geographical Targeting for Poverty Alleviation: Methodology and Applications (World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies) World Bank Publications ISBN: 0821346253
· Allen, T. and Thomas, A. (Eds) (2000) Poverty and Development: Into the 21st Century Oxford University Press; Rev edition ISBN: 0198776268

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GIS 862: Tourism Development


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
Tourism is now the world’s largest industry and for many countries like Pakistan, attracting foreign exchange through tourism development is an important component of the local economy. However, experience around the world has shown that achieving all desired goals from tourism development is not easy. This course provides students with the opportunity to begin to understand why and how achieving sustainable development of tourism is such a challenge to communities around the world.
Course Contents
Introduction to tourism: themes, concepts and issues
Understanding the tourist: tourism demand and tourist motivation
Tourism supply issues
Travel and tourism intermediaries
Transport and tourism
Tourist attractions
Tourism accommodation
Human Resource Management in Tourism
Economics of Tourism
Tourism Marketing: Concept, Issues and Destination Management
The Impact of Tourist Activity
Tourism Industry in Pakistan
Tourism and Geographical Information System
Reference Material:
· Pearce, D. G. and Butler, R. (2001) Contemporary Issues in Tourism Development (Routledge Advances in Tourism), Routledge: London, ISBN: 0415271673
· World Tourism Organization (WTO), 2000 Sustainable Development of Tourism: A Compilation of Good Practices, (2000), World Tourism Organization, ISBN: 9284403723
· Cooper, C. P. Wanhill, S. and Cooper, C. (Eds) (1997) Tourism Development: Environmental and Community Issues, International Academy for the Study of Tourism, ISBN: 0471971162
· Gartner W. C. (2001) Tourism Development: Principles, Processes, and Policies, John Wiley & Sons: New York, ISBN-10: 0471284475

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GIS 863: Education and Health Services


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course provides broad overview of education and health services for community. This course also gives an understanding about geoinformatics is being used in educational infrastructure demand, higher educational institutes and industry lesion, tracking of environmental diseases, Site selection of new hospitals and clinics based on demand and demographic factors, monitoring toxic spills to protect the health of nearby residents, mapping of demand for future nursing home/orphanages facilities, and marketing for pharmaceuticals.
Course Contents
Educational Infrastructure
Demand and Supply Models
Demographic Profiling
Higher Educational Institutes and Industry Lesion
Site Selections, Locations and Relocations
Tracking of Environmental Diseases
Services Mapping
Marketing for pharmaceuticals
Case Study 1: Education
Case Study 2: Health
Reference Material:
· Lang, L. (2000) GIS for Health Organizations, ESRI Press: Redlands, California, ISBN: 1-879102-65-X
· Campbell, E. (1982) Community education and health services, U.S. Conference of Mayors, ASIN: B0006Y4FS8
· Elder, O. J. (1976) Position paper: Education of health service administrators in an interdisciplinary model, University of Oregon Health Sciences Center, ASIN: B0006YMNK0
· Hall P. (2002) Urban and Regional Planning Routledge: London, ISBN-10: 0415217768
· Chapin, Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press, US, ISBN-10: 0252021010

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GIS-864 Business and Marketing


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course involves the use of GIS and desktop mapping technology, as well as supporting Database Management Systems (DBMS), in any of the business activities like Customer Profiling,Risk assessment, Facility Planning and Management, Market Segmentation, Sales Territory Analysis etc.
Course Contents
Introduction to GIS applications for business
Data – types, acquisition, handling and manipulation
History of GIS/Business Geographic context
Retail Decision Support Systems
Supply and Demand Analysis
Geodemographics and Database Marketing
Business Geographics and the Internet
Geographical Information and Planning
Business and Marketing in Pakistan
Reference Material:
· Boyles, D. (2002) GIS Means Business Volume 2 ESRI Press: Redlands, California, 1st edition ISBN: 1589480333
· Hughes, A. (2000) Strategic Database Marketing: The Masterplan for Starting and Managing a Profitable Customer-Based Marketing Program McGraw-Hill: New York, 2 edition, ISBN: 0071351825
· Grimshaw, D. J. (1999) Bringing Geographical Information Systems into Business Wiley; 2 edition ISBN: 0471333425
· Longley, P. A. and Clarke, G. (Eds) (1996) GIS for Business and Service Planning, John Wiley & Sons; New York, ISBN: 0470235101
· Drezner, Z. (Eds) (1995) Facility Location : A Survey of Applications and Methods (Springer Series in Operations Research and Financial Engineering) Springer; 1 edition ISBN: 0387945458

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GIS 865: Land Information System (LIS)


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The course will examine Cadastral information system which is a parcel-based land information system that manages all data that is directly or indirectly related to parcels or properties and their legal boundaries. Cadastral database provides parcel based information with large scale and highly accurate geospatial data.
Course Contents
Concept of Land and Land Administration
The Cadastral Concept, Cadastral Surveying and Mapping, Cadastral Systems in Developing Countries
Digital Cadastral Databases
Land Titling
Land Registration, Adverse Possession, Linkages Between Cadastre, Land Valuation & Planning
Methods of data collection, data refinement, data storage, data analysis and manipulation, data presentation, programming.
Identifying issues in Land Information Systems, data issues, software, hardware, standards, institutional issues, coordinate systems, data validation, and quality issues
Spatial Hierarchy applied to National Spatial Data Infrastructure
Spatial Data Infrastructure for Pakistan
Economic Rationalism in managing spatial data infrastructure - the Pakistani experience
The Case Studies of LIS in various developed and underdeveloped countries
Reference Material:
· Meyer, N. (2004) GIS and Land Records, ESRI Press: Redlands, California, 150 pages, ISBN: 1589480775
· Wyatt, P. and Ralphs, P. M. (2003) GIS in Land and Property Management’ Spon Press, 416 pages, ISBN: 0415240654
· Hall P. (2002) Urban and Regional Planning, Routledge: London, ISBN-10: 0415217768
· Chapin Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0252021010
· National Research Council U.S. Panel on Multipurpose Cadstre, (1983) Procedures and Standards for a Multipurpose Cadastre, Nat. Academy Press: USA, 173 pages, ISBN: 0309033438

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GIS 866: Utilities and Services Management


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
The basic aim of this course is to understand and model the linear urban structures such as road network, pipeline, communication network, river system, rail roads, irrigation etc. However, second part of the course provides in depth knowledge about community services with especial emphasis on emergency response system.
Course Contents
Network Theory
Models, Ordering and Topology
Network Processes
Utility Information System
Consumer Management
Utility Operations
Assets Management
Distribution and Transmission Management
Outage Management
Network Data Modeling
Services Management
Emergency Response System
Case Study
Reference Material:
· American Water Works Association, (2001) Excellence in Action: Water Utility Management in the 21st Century (Awwa Trends in Water Series), American Water Works Association, ISBN: 1583211594
· American Water Works Association, (1980), Water Utility Management (Awwa Manual), ISBN: 0898670632
· Hall, P. (2002) Urban and Regional Planning, Routledge: London, ISBN-10: 0415217768
· Chapin Jr. S. F., Kaiser, J. E. and Godschalk, R. D. (1995) Urban Land Use Planning, University of Illinois Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0252021010
· Elder, O. J. (1976) Position paper: Education of health service administrators in an interdisciplinary model, University of Oregon Health Sciences Center, ASIN: B0006YMNK0

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GIS 871: Geodesy


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course targets the development of skills and concepts related to the computer-based handling of spatial data and geographic information. A major emphasis will be on the development of student’s ability to think and reason critically about geographic information and understanding the importance of geospatial data in the production of information at the global, national and local scale in a variety of contexts.
Course Contents
An Introduction to Geospatial Science and Technology
Coordinates and Coordinates System
Datum and Geodetic Systems
Projections and Types of Projection
Shape of the Earth
Coordinate Transformation
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Fundamentals of GPS Signals and Data
GPS Surveying and Mapping
Processing Spatial Data
Practical Geodesy Using Computers
Applications of Satellites to Geodesy
Reference Material:
· Bossler, J. D., John R. Jensen, McMaster, R. B., and Rizos, C. Manual of Geospatial Science and Technology (2001) 1st edition; CRC Press: New York. ISBN: 0748409246
· Kaula, W. Theory of Satellite Geodesy : Applications of Satellites to Geodesy (2000) Dover Publications ISBN: 0486414655
· Hooijberg, M. Practical Geodesy Using Computers (October 29, 1997) 1ST edition Publisher: Springer; ISBN: 3540618260
· Bugayevskiy :. M., and John Snyder, 1995, Map Projections: A Reference Manual, CRC Press, ISBN-10: 0748403043

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GIS 872: Integrated Geo-Technologies


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: All Core Courses
Objective:
This course describes the integration of geospatial technologies on a single platform for the effective solution oriented approach. The integration of Geo-technologies will guide the participants to organize the geospatial data for real-time applications with respect to database, speeding up analysis, display, and decision making by using up-to-date, more accurate information.
Course Contents
Identification of Geo-Technology
Brief Introduction of Geo Technologies (GIS, RS, GPS, Photogrammetry, Surveying, Data Loggers, Digital Sensors)
Data Logger and Data Acquisition System
Data Logging Using GPS
Digital Sensors
Mobile GIS
Mobile devices
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
Wireless communications for Internet GIS access
Mobile GIS Applications
Navigation & Tracking
Geo-Integration and Levels of Geo-Integration
Reference Material:
· Miller, H. J. & Shaw, S. L. (2001) Geographic Information Systems for Transportation: Principles and Applications (Spatial Information Systems) Oxford University Press ISBN: 0195123948
· Groot, R. and McLaughlin, J. (2000) Geospatial Data Infrastructure : Concepts, Cases, and Good Practice (Spatial Information Systems) Publisher: Oxford University Press ISBN: 0198233817
· Breunig, M. (1996) Integration of Spatial Information for Geo-Information Systems (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences) Publisher: Springer ISBN: 3540608567
· Thurston J. , Poiker, K. T. and Moore, P. J. (2003) Integrated Geospatial Technologies: A Guide to GPS, GIS, and Data Logging, John Wiley and Sons: New York, ISBN-10: 0471244090

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GIS 873: Corporate GIS


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
Geographic Information System has become an integrated part of many organizations dealing with asset management, distribution networks, customer management, target marketing and decision making. This course gives not only introduction to fundamentals of enterprise structure but also provides an integrated approach for application of GIS in corporate environment.
Course Contents
GIS Methods
Strategic Goals of GIS
GIS Planning for Corporate Organization
GIS Technology in Organizations
Description of Information Products
System Scope
GIS Data Design and Development
Corporate GIS data Models
Benefit-cost, migration and risk analysis
GIS Implementation Planning
Benchmark testing
Network design planning factors
Case Study
Reference Material:
· Tomlinson, R. (2003) Thinking About GIS: Geographic Information System Planning for Managers, ESRI Press: Redlands, Califonia, ISBN: 1589480708
· Rigaux, P., Scholl, M. and Voisard, A. (2001) Spatial Databases: With Application to GIS (Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems), Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN: 1558605886
· Thurston J. , Poiker, K. T. and Moore, P. J. (2003) Integrated Geospatial Technologies: A Guide to GPS, GIS, and Data Logging, John Wiley and Sons: New York, ISBN-10: 0471244090
· Ermann, D. M. and Lundman, J. R. (2001) Corporate and Governmental Deviance: Problems of Organizational Behavior in Contemporary Society, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0195135296

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GIS 874: Web GIS


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course covers the basic components of GIS for the internet. Studies include network environments and network communications models. Students look at technological evolutions of web mapping (e.g., static map publishing, interactive maps, and OpenGIS). Other topics include Geographic Markup Language (GML) and Commercial Web Mapping programs. Students are required to publish a map on internet.
Course Contents
Introduction to Distributed Internet GIS
Fundamentals of Computer Networking
Client/Server Computing
Technology Evolutions of Web Mapping
Framework of Distributed GIS
Standards for Distributed GISServices
Geographic Markup Language
Commercial Web Mapping Programs
Map Publishing
ArcIMS Environment and Implementation
Case Study
Reference Material:
· Editors of ESRI Press (2004) Getting Started with ArcIMS : ArcGIS 9, ESRI Press: Redlands, Califonia, ISBN: 1589481119
· Tang, W. and Selwood, J. (2003) Connecting Our World: GIS Web Services, ESRI Press Redlands, Califonia, ISBN: 1589480759
· Peng, Z. and Tsou, M. (2003) Internet GIS: Distributed Geographic Information Services for the Internet and Wireless Network, Wiley, ISBN: 0471359238
· Waters, N. (2001) Internet GIS: Watch Your ASP.(geographic software) : An article from: GEO World [HTML], Adams Business Media, ISBN: B0008I55C2

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GIS-875 GIS Project Management


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course attempts to cover important aspects of different types of project including development and business aspects. The course covers various topics starting from basic concepts and problems relating to GIS projects design, development, management and implementation.
Course Contents
Project Management Overview
The Project Management Process
Initiating the Project
Creating Scope Statement and WBS
Resource Planning and Estimating
Establishing Project Planning Controls
Creating Project Plan
Organizational Design for Project Management
Project Selection Models and Techniques
Cost Benefit Analysis
Project Planning
Project Scheduling
Project Management Information System
Project Monitoring, Reporting and Controlling
Project Termination
Case Studies
Reference Material:
· Project Management Institute, (2004) A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge, Project Management Institute, ISBN: 193069945X
· Heerkens, R. G. (2001) Project Management, McGraw-Hill: NewYork ISBN: 0071379525
· Wysocki, K. R. and McGary, R. Effective Project Management: Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme, Third Edition, John Wiley and Sons: New York, ISBN: 0471432210
· Huxhold, W. E. and Levinsohn, G. A. (1994) Managing Geographic Information System Projects (Spatial Information Systems), Oxford University Press: USA, ISBN-10: 0195078691

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GIS-876 Geostatistics


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
Geostatistics is the name commonly associated with both the techniques utilized and the problems/objectives arising out of applications in the earth sciences where earth sciences is interpreted in a broad sense (including but not limited to geosciences, hydrology, soil sciences, mining engineering, environmental monitoring and assessment, atmospheric sciences). In general the topics are oriented to the analysis of spatially located data and in particular the estimation of values of the variable or variables of interest (for example ore grades, pollutant concentrations, hydrologic parameters) at an unsampled point or the average over an area or volume using data at a discrete number of (possibly) irregularly spaced points. The course will emphasize applying the methods and software for the analysis of a specific data set as well as becoming familiar with the literature.
Course Contents
Introduction
Sampling
Exploratory Data Analysis
Spatial Statistics
Puntual Kriging
Variograms
Block Kriging
Universal Kriging
Space-time Modeling
Intrinsic Random Functions
Non-linear Transformations
Comparison with other Techniques
Multivariate Methods
Geostatistical Simulation and Risk Assessment
Geostatisitcs Application Areas
Reference Material:
· Fotheringham, S. and Brunsdon, C. (2000) Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis SAGE Publications: London ISBN: 0761959483
· Kitanidis, P. K. (1997) Introduction to Geostatistics : Applications in Hydrogeology Cambridge University Press: Cambridge ISBN: 0521587476
· Cressie, N. (1993) Statistics for Spatial Data (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics) Wiley-Interscience; 1st edition ISBN: 0471002550
· Isaaks E. H. and Srivastava, R. M. (1990) An Introduction to Applied Geostatisticsm, Oxford University Press : Oxford, ISBN-10: 0195050134

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GIS 877: Spatial Decision Support System


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: Core Courses
Objective:
This course aims to provide essentials of Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) concepts, skills needed to build and implement SDSS, and hands-on experience with decision support software tools. Additional types of systems covered: Executive Information Systems (EIS), Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS), and Expert Systems (ES).
Course Contents
Introduction to Spatial Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Taxonomy of DSS
Relationship of Prior Information Systems to SDSS
Conceptual Foundation
SDSS Characteristics
Decision Making and SDSS
Hardware and Software for SDSS
Hardware in a SDSS Environment
Software in a SDSS Environment
SDSS Software Selection
SDSS Architecture
Data Management
Model Management
User Interface
Development of SDSS
Constructing SDSS
SDSS Applications
SDSS Case Study
Executive Information Systems (EIS)
Special Aspects
Reference Material:
· Rodriguez-Bachiller, A., Glasson, J. (2004) Expert Systems and Geographic Information Systems for Impact Assessment, Taylor & Francis: London, ISBN:0-415-30725-2
· Leung, Y. (1997) Intelligent Spatial Decision Support Systems (Advances in Spatial Science), Springer-Verlag Telos, ISBN: 3540625186
Lee, J. (1992) Spatial decision support systems for retail site selection, Dept. of Geography, the University Center at Binghamton, State University of New York, ASIN: B0006P21RY
Sugumaran, R. and Sugumaran, V. 2007, Spatial Decision Support Systems, ISBN-10: 1420062093

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GIS 878: GIS Standards, Security and Ethics


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: None
Objective:
This course covers the standardization developed by International Standard Organization, FGDC-USA and the role of Open GIS Consortium. Information security is always a major concern in any information system which could be implemented through some encrypted enforcement and ethics.
Course Outline
Basic Standards and Standardization
ISO Standardization
Geometry Standards of ISO
Non-geometry standards
FGDC Standardization
Role of Open GIS Consortium
Information Security Issues
Techniques in information security
Ethics of geographic information
Ethics of Remote Sensing
Ethics of information utilization and transformation
Reference Material:
· Kresse, W. and Fadiae, K. (2004) ISO Standards for Geographic Information, Springer, USA
· United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, (1998) GIS Standards & Standardization: A Handbook (St-Escap Series Volume 1856), United Nations, ISBN-10: 9211198305
· Chan, K. (1998) DIGEST A Primer for the International GIS Standard, CRC, ISBN-10: 1566702410
· OpenGIS web portal
· FGDC web portal

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GIS 901: Special Topics in GIS


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: 501 and 801
Objective:
This course focuses on providing the knowledge and experience necessary to conduct GIS based research at the post graduate level and/or to develop GIS based applied projects in natural resource management; environmental management; urban and regional planning; socioeconomic and infrastructure development; and geomatics.
Course Contents
Investigations to be decided with students according to their special interest in this particular field. It will also include lessons, seminars and literature review of particular research subjects.
Reference Material:
· Fotheringham, S. , Brunsdon, C. and Charlton, E. M. (2000) Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis, SAGE Publications: London, ISBN: 0761959483
· Stillwell , J. (2004) Applied GIS and Spatial Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: England, ISBN: 0470844094
· Malczewski, J. (1999) GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, ISBN: 0471329444
· Molenaar, M. (1998) An Introduction to the Theory of Spatial Object Modelling for GIS, Taylor & Francis, Inc. :London, ISBN: 074840774X

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GIS 911: Special Topics in Remote Sensing


Credit Hours: 3
Prerequisite: 511 and 811
Objective:
Special topics in remote sensing focuses on providing the knowledge and experience necessary to conduct remote sensing research at the post graduate level.
Course Contents
Investigations to be decided with students according to their special interest in this particular field. It will also include lessons, seminars and literature review of particular research subjects.
Reference Material:
· Mather, P. M., (1999), Computer processing of remotely-sensed images: an introduction, Chi Chester, John Wiley & Sons: New York, ISBN: 0471906484
· Ofset, H., A.Ş. Barrett, E.C., and Curtis, L.F., (1999), An introduction to environmental remote sensing, Routledge: London ISBN: 0748740066
· Jensen, J. R., (1996), Introductory digital image processing - a remote sensing perspective, Prentice Hall: : London, ISBN: 0132058405
· Lillesand, T. M. and R. W. Kiefer (1994) Remote sensing and image interpretation, , John Wiley & Sons: New York, ISBN: 0471152277
· Campbell, J. B. (2006) Introduction to remote sensing, The Guilford Press: London, ISBN: 0415282942

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